Literature on peer tutors and peer helpers with handicapped and nonhandicapped students are viewed and a model is proposed for the establishment and supervision of peer helpers. Steps include identification of needs; selection of helpers; preparation of helpers; the process of helping, recording, supervision, and evaluation. (Author).
The present study, involving 112 sixth graders, explored the effect of self- and other-directed negative affect on the subsequent helping behavior of high- and low-empathic children. (MP).
Describes how a 2-day peer-led orientation program, held one week prior to the opening of school, helped displaced elementary school pupils adjust to a new school. Compared to control pupils who did not participate in the program, the 13 target pupils were superior in terms of self-esteem related to peer relationships, knowledge of school rules, and teacher conduct ratings. Implications for community psychologists are noted.
This article addresses the question, "What are the characteristics of successful peer helper programs?" It suggests the most critical component of any peer helper programme is training and that the procedures chosen to train students can make the difference between a successful programme and an unsuccessful programme.
This article describes various projects that elementary and middle school peer helpers became involved in following training in some basic helping skills. These projects fell into four categories: (a) peer tutors, (b) special friends, (c) group leaders, and (d) guidance assistants.
This article examines the need for assessment of peer programs and suggests various methods of evaluation. It suggests evaluation should be done to (a) determine the impact of the programme, (b) help build support for the programme, (c) assist in the programme improvement, and ((d) to fulfill an ethical obligation to the recipients of the programs.
Describes a peer facilitation program designed to curtail and redirect disruptive behavior among elementary school students. Twelve fifth graders, expressing an interest in helping others, attended 10 - 30 minute training sessions aimed at developing their interpersonal sensitivity and helping skills. Training focused on didactic and experiential learning in such areas as reflective listening, exploration of alternatives and group leadership. After training, Ss were able to serve as group counseling co-leaders, tutors, and orientation aides. Programs of this type appear to generate significant behavioral and attitudinal changes among trainees. (C.B. Barad).
Describes a program that trains middle school students to provide a wide variety of guidance and counseling services. Discussion includes the selection and training of the facilitators. Three functions of the trained facilitators are mentioned: (1) for classroom guidance, (2) for group counseling, and (3) for individual counseling.
Three 10-year-old boys, in a class for children with learning and behaviour problems, were given the goal, "Play more with friends during recess." With the teacher's direction, the boys gave each other feedback as to whether the goal had been met the day before. An immediate and sustained increase in positive social behaviours resulted.
Describes a peer assistance approach to job placement that guidance departments in secondary schools can implement with minimal expense and staff time. (FL).
Explores the idea of using peer facilitators to encourage increased female interest in science careers. Describes one program where seven senior high school girls were trained and acted as facilitators for group discussions involving Grade 7 girls.
Describes the concepts and practices of the Peer Counsellor Health Advocate Model. The model involves a team of trained grade 11 peer counsellors working with grade 9 students on health related issues such as stress management and nutrition.
Examined the effectiveness of behavioral group counseling in preventing and remediating maladjustment of 24 ninth graders of average intelligence. Group counseling was provided by experienced school counselors or by twelfth graders. When compared to ninth graders receiving routine counseling services, the students receiving group counseling improved their school attendance and GPA, while reducing their number of disciplinary referrals and referrals for special education. There were no differences between groups receiving counseling from professionals and from older students.
Describes the implementation of a peer counselling training program with grade nine students by providing practical suggestions for setting up a program, selection of students and training strategies.
Selected high school sophomores and juniors at Pomona Senior High School in Arvada, Colorado are trained in counseling and group communication skills in order to be able to facilitate small peer groups in elective classes. The purpose is to help students find personal meaning in their lives and be more successful in school. An attempt is made to use the growth facilitating conditions developed by Carl Rogers: congruence, empathy, positive regard, and the ability to communicate all three of these. Titles of four books and two audiovisual aids conclude this brief document. (JW)
Adolescent perceptions of the counsellor effectiveness of peer helpers were examined by studying perceptions of simulated interviews. The subjects were 143 grade 11 students. The effects of the two factors, training (trained vs. untrained) and the role label assigned ("friend" vs. "peer counsellor") were tested using an experimental design. Results indicate adolescents perceive trained peer helpers as more facilitative than untrained helpers. These findings support the training and use of adolescent peer counsellors.
Defines peer counseling as a process where students are trained in helping skills to offer, under supervision, listening, support, and alternatives to other students. Discusses the implementation procedures of identifying needs, setting goals, marketing the program, training and supervising, establishing peer counseling services, and evaluating the program. (Author/PAS).
Cites references in school psychology literature and describes a comprehensive paraprofessional training/ supervisory model utilizing secondary level students and incorporating 12 paraprofessional involvement areas as part of a high school psychological services delivery system. Notes individual client data and program evaluation portray student improvement rates ranging from 50 percent to 90 percent. (Author/HLM).
Describes the development of a peer counseling program in an inner-city Chicago high school with emphasis on peer counselor selection and training procedures. Discusses the benefits and problems inherent in this program. (SJL).
A pilot program, Chemical Addictions Prevention in Schools (CAPS), is meeting with success at a Pennsylvania high school. A counselor who is not a member of the school's regular teaching or counseling staff operates an in-school counseling center utilizing peer counseling, support groups, and crisis prevention and intervention. (Author/MLF).
Illustrates the use of peer counselling both in a school setting and outside. Two peer counsellor training methods are presented: (1) by B. Varenhorst, and (2) by R. Carr and G. Saunders.
This bulletin addresses the issue of improving interagency cooperation between the school and the court for the purpose of coordinating their efforts to reduce violence and vandalism within the school and the community. The Berrien County Court-School Seminar Project was designed to foster interagency communication and to better equip educators to deal with behavior problems. The school-based Peer Group Counseling program is an innovative method for dealing with problems in the school setting. (Author/MLF).
Focuses on elementary and middle school students as peer helpers. The five articles describe the peer helper concept and how it can enhance learning, offers suggestions for training peer helpers, describes helping projects and program evaluation, and suggests other ways of improving school climate through cross-age interaction. (JAC).
Middle school students provide guidance and counseling services to elementary school students. The Total Involvement Program includes classroom guidance and both individual and group counseling and is effective for both the younger students and facilitators. (JAC).
This article explores two methods of peer counseling used in high schools. The open model of counseling, or students trained to help other students, is described. (Author/DF).
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Discusses the motivating factors, organization, training process, problems, and keys to success of a peer counseling program at an inner city Chicago high school. Student counselors are seniors recruited from psychology classes, who receive training, supervision, and support from the school social worker and psychology teachers. (MBR).
Examined adolescent perceptions of the counselor effectiveness of peer helpers by studying perceptions of videotaped simulated interviews. The subjects were 143 grade 11 students. The effects of training and role label were tested. Data indicated that adolescents perceive trained peer helpers as more facilitative than untrained helpers. (JAC).
In reviewing the role of the school psychologist, this paper points out the disparity between actual and proposed roles, and suggests that student paraprofessionals could be trained to narrow the gap. Several examples of the student as helper concept are reviewed, and advantages are discussed. A rationale for incorporating the student paraprofessional into the school psychology role and function is presented. Steps in the successful preliminary planning and implementation of such a program are outlined, based on collaboration with other school personnel. Recruitment of student candidates, training, group dynamics, and evaluation and accountability are discussed, and specific intervention strategies that students can implement are described. The increased effectiveness for a school psychological services delivery system using student paraprofessionals is summarized in seven areas, and the value of extending the program into the community is emphasized. The paper concludes with an outline of the proposed model accompanied by selected references for each section. (JAC).
Examined the relationship between the attributions and action plans formulated by untrained students role playing peer counselors for same-sex or opposite-sex students who failed. Results revealed significantly higher attributions to internal factors for all stimulus persons, and higher attributions to controllable as opposed to uncontrollable factors. (JAC).
This book traces the evolution of Dr. Varenhorst's Peer Counselling program begun in 1970. It provides practical advice and examples of basic skills that adolescents need to make friends. It also describes how the program has developed out of the successfulness of using these approaches to help young people care for themselves and others and reach out to those with problems. Selection and training of peer counsellors, as well as program implementation suggestions are presented. (JF).
Describes systematic organized training of peer facilitators at the elementary school level. By implementing peer facilitator programs, such as the junior counsellor program, counsellors can provide students with valuable educational experiences. In addition, junior counsellor programs can be fun for students, teachers, and counsellors. (Author).
Students in an experimental group received peer facilitator training twice a week for three weeks and a group leadership experience. Results fail to support the concept of peer facilitator training and group leadership experience as a remedial technique with low-performing elementary school students.
Discusses value of peer counselling for children and adolescents and provides model for development of peer counselling programs. Includes selection and training of peer counsellors, counsellor-client needs, evaluation, documentation and institutionalization of peer counselling programs. Emphasizes special relationship obtainable between peer counsellors and clients. (NRB).
Describes the successful implementation of the Models at Prevention peer program at Colorado's Laredo Middle School, including the initial and on-going training and tasks assigned to peer counsellors. (PGD).
Peer counselling, an educational strategy in which students counsel and help facilitate the growth and development of other students, was implemented in an urban high school. In general, the counselees gained an ability to relate more effectively with both peers and adults in problem solving and communication skills. (Author).
This workshop booklet explains to parents a program on human sexuality for high school students selected as peer counsellors. Preliminary student and faculty surveys, a school board presentation explaining the need for the program, and parent materials preface the actual program contents. The course materials included cover values clarification, advisor role-playing, and a joint parent-child sexual mythology quiz. The book closes with a seminar evaluation questionnaire and a list of local resources. Data for preliminary surveys and evaluation are not included. The introduction emphasizes that throughout the program's two years of operation, the importance of parental understanding and support was stressed. (LJS).
An ongoing peer counselling program was studied. Results suggested two distinct service delivery systems. An informal system served large numbers of self-refined students and dealt primarily with personal-social problems. A formal system reached fewer students, relied upon staff referral and addressed academic difficulties. (Author).
Views are presented on education and health that a student teacher should consider in a search for excellence in teaching, including the interest of health education to the student, nature of the learning process, development of a learning climate, and others. (MJB).
Peer counselling in high schools provides a developmental growth opportunity for adolescents as well as a valuable outreach service for the Guidance Office. Through intensive small group experience and training, selected students gain insight into their own ideas, needs, and values. They also learn more effective interpersonal and decision making skills. As psychological education, an effective peer counselling program provides a variety of conditions under which adolescents may successfully complete the transition to responsible and satisfying adulthood. Adolescents receive guidance in defining themselves, develop consciousness awareness of conflicting demands, receive training and practice in responsible behaviour, set and obtain realistic and desirable goals, assume responsibility for their own behaviour and live constructively with the consequences, and develop security about their ability to handle new problems. This paper presents a detailed description of one, two-phased peer counselling program: skills training and application of skills. The entire program is then viewed developmentally as it considers how peer counselling furthers the psychological and maturational growth needs of high school students. (Author).
This study deals with self-disclosure in the high school years. Students were administered a modified form of the Jourard Self-Disclosure Questionnaire and asked to indicate the extent to which they had made themselves known to significant others about various aspects of their lives. (Author)
Norridge High School counsellors developed a program using peer counsellors to obtain and share information from college representatives. After initial training sessions they interviewed the representatives, posted descriptions of the colleges, and answered students' questions. (JAC).
The Peer Leadership Program decreased students absences, the dropout rate, physical attacks and vandalism costs, increased student involvement. (Author/IRT).
The helping students completed a training course dealing with topics of communication, sensitivity and resources. They had definite objectives for both themselves and the program. In implementation, the students tutored, oriented, ran projects, helped counsellors and the administrative staff answered student questions, and provided various other services. (LPG).
The implementation of peer counselling programs can increase increase the overall effectiveness of counselling services, but no single program is right for all settings. Each staff needs to consider the particular setting. Careful consideration of the elements discussed in this article should benefit trainees and students. (Author).
Peer counsellors are used in advising, counselling and assisting exceptional children with school activities. (SBH).
Guidance Services Position Statement was prepared in response to a need expressed by people engaged either in developing school guidance activities or in expanding and improving such activities. The intent was to provide a guide or a framework upon which a guidance program might be constructed or made more effective. Five major sections focus on: (1) basic rationale for guidance, (2) basic services, (3) current issues, (4) evaluation criteria, and (5) counsellor role model. The basic rationale for guidance programs is to discover guidance where it occurs, sharpen abilities to meet the goals and build its many forms into a planned total effort aimed at helping the whole child develop to his/her full potential. Guidance services felt to be basic to all guidance programs include individual counselling, group processes, pupil assessment, information, parental involvement, referrals, orientation, staff consultation, pupil records, placement, research and evaluation. The ad hoc committee recommends 31 criteria for evaluating school guidance programs, and defines the role of the counsellor in a model job description which includes qualifications, role and duties. (BN).
Describes the national anti-smoking campaign in terms of various school projects funded by the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, coordinated by its new Office on Smoking and Health. Projects include utilizing peer counsellors, demonstrating what smoking does to the body, and showing how to deal with social pressures. (MF).
This paper describes a project that focuses on youth as resources in meeting the problem of maltreatment of adolescents. The 4-part program consists of a youth-staffed hotline, a self-help group, an information pamphlet for recognizing maltreatment, and a public awareness campaign. (Author/SE).
Describes the results of a survey on characteristics of Youthliners, adolescent peer counsellors who staff a hotline service in New Zealand. (SS).
This is a step-by-step guide to re-emphasizing the human touch through paraprofessionals in orientation/ registration. The steps are funding a student team, selecting a student team, training a student team, productively utilizing a student team and evaluation. (Author).
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A description of the beginnings, operation and effectiveness of the peer counseling program at Indian Hill High School in Cincinnati, Ohio first begun in 1978. The authors provide anecdotal evidence that the program has had a great impact on the school climate, and they provide information about how the program stimulated many staff members to become involved in the training. (RAC).
This two page document outlines value and basis for peer counselling at Cardinal Newman High School, and provides guidelines for the success of peer counselling programs in general. The specific responsibilities and training of students as peer counsellors is provided along with an address to obtain copies of training materials. (RAC).
The intent of this article is to explore the advantages of the implementation of a multi-cultural peer counselling program into the Canadian Secondary School System. The positive effects produced by this type of program are related to the students involved and within the counselling department of the secondary school system. (Author).
A peer culture development program implemented in three Chicago public high schools is described. The program uses peer influence in group meetings (classes) as means for reduction of adolescent behavior. An evaluation study providing generally positive findings is reported, showing reductions in destructive or detrimental behavior. (Author).
The general goal of this orientation program was to foster a successful school adjustment for entering eighth graders in a black, suburban high school with an enrollment of approximately 1600 students in grades 8-12. Three factors seemed to correlate strongly with high school success: academic skill level, attendance and conduct. It was hypothesized that deficits in attendance and appropriate school-related behaviors may be due largely to a lack of accurate information about expected behavior, appropriate role models, good interpersonal skills and acceptance of personal responsibility. The results for the class initially participating in the informational-processing group were a reduction in absences, improved conduct, and subsequently fewer failing grades. Annual program evaluation continue to indicate similar benefits. (Author, BH).
This article provides a brief overview and history of the peer counseling movement and examines the psychological and behavioral foundations such as social learning, modeling and peer interaction. The authors focus on peer roles, selection, training and evaluation of peer counseling in the elementary school. (RAC).
Administered a sociometric choice questionnaire and a peer rating scale to 238 children in grades 4-7 to examine the frequency of nominations received by each child and to compare the peer ratings of popular and unpopular children. A subgroup of 28 popular and 28 unpopular Ss was selected on the basis of the sociometric results. Those students who received maximum scores were also rated highly by their peers on four behavioural dimensions--compliance, nonintrusiveness, academic brightness, and friendliness. Peer ratings were low for the unpopular Ss. Peer ratings alone or in conjunction with sociometric choice data can unravel behavioural and social competencies of children. (Psyc Abstr).
Ten 11th- and 12th-graders who responded to an advertisement for a peer vocational counselling program offered for credit and who were interested in human service careers were compared with 10 controls matched for sex, academic performance, grade level, and socioeconomic status (SES) (but not humanistic qualities) on career development. Peer counsellors were trained in a weekend workshop and 21 two-hour classes; they logged 372 counselling sessions from January to March and continued their work to June. All Ss completed the Career Development Inventory (CDI) before and after the training and counselling period. It was found that peer counsellors improved significantly more than controls on the CDI. (Psyc Abstr).
As counselling programs are being strained by the ever increasing needs of today's students, other methods of helping the students are being used. The peer helper program is one method that is optimistically being tried. Information is presented here on the background, training procedures, and evaluation methods (both subjective and objective) of the program. It is difficult to evaluate the program, as is pointed out in one evaluation study that had inconclusive results. Although the peer helper program appears to be useful and worthwhile, caution is urged until enough data is gathered to substantiate the effectiveness of the program. (Author).
Project STAR (Social Thinking and Reasoning Program) is a classroom-based social skills program for students in grades 5-8. To assess the long-term effectiveness of this program, students participated in the project (N=331) were compared with control students (N=191) during 1980-83. The hypothesis that there are significant differences in current achievement level, self-concept, and behaviour of students who received STAR training in grades 6-8 between 1980 and 1983 compared to the original group of students who did not receive STAR training was tested. The evaluation was based on students' self report measures of health, self-concept, and social skills. Student record data was also collected on current attendance, academic performance, and behaviour. The results of the first year of research show that students trained in STAR had significantly better grades and attendance, fewer health problems, and were more assertive and resistant to peer pressure to use drugs than were control subjects. These findings suggest that students do retain social skills training and put it to positive use in their lives. (ABB).
Second-, fourth-, sixth-, and eighth-grade children's perceptions of the social support provided by friends were assessed. During individual interviews, the children were asked about the frequency of emotional support or intimate-self disclosure, tangible support or prosocial behaviour, and other types of support provided by a particular friend. They were also asked about the frequency of conflicts with the friend and the frequency of supportive interactions and conflicts with a classmate who was only an acquaintance. Factor analysis revealed an increase with grade in the differentiation between the support and conflict dimensions of friendship and acquaintanceship. At all grades, children perceived friends as more supportive than acquaintances, but explanations for the lack of support from acquaintances changes with grade. Sixth graders often gave personal attributions (for example, saying that the acquaintances were selfish or hostile). Eighth graders favored more situational attributions (for example, saying that they had few supportive interactions with acquaintances because they rarely came in contact with them). The potential value of perceived-support measures in research on the consequences of friendship if discussed. (Authors).
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This study examined whether students could learn resistance to persuasion skills (RPS) and identify those skills after viewing a videotape where child actors responded to group pressure to smoke; and examined if a child's self-concept or social status is associated with his/her ability to learn the RPS. Subjects for the study were sixth grade students (N=95) in four elementary schools. Two classes consisting of 54 subjects were randomly assigned to the control group. A randomized pretest-posttest control group design was used. Data were analyzed using the Mantel Haenszel Chi Square statistic and the Analysis of Variance. Findings suggest that resistance to persuasion skills can be taught and successfully learned in a school health education environment, and that a child's self-concept and social status is not associated with learning RPS. Command of such skills may induce in young students greater independence from pressure tactics often used by associates in social settings. (Authors).
Change and stability in competence and self-esteem of fifth- and sixth-grade boys and girls were examined across a one-year period, in which approximately one-half of the children made the transition from elementary school (transition groups) and the other help continued in the same school (nontransition groups). Beginning at the end of the school year before transition, the Perceived Competence Scale for Children and the Teacher's Rating Scale of Child's Actual Competence were administered at six-month intervals. There was no notable transition effect either early or late in the new school year. Overall, children's perceived competence increased and was stable across the one-year period. Teacher ratings also reflected competence gains for children in nontransition groups; but for children in transition groups they were substantially lower in secondary than in elementary school. The results indicate that entry into secondary school represents significant change from elementary school, but that most children negotiate the transition without undue difficulty. (Authors).
In this study 175 older adolescents (83 males, 92 females) nominated their parents, particularly their mothers, then friends of the same sex, as people most important in their lives. While parents were rated as more important than friends overall, problems were more frequently discussed with close friends. Using a matched sampling design, the adolescents' own mothers, fathers, and a close friend of the same sex also responded to a scale where parents' or friends' opinions might be sought as part of adolescent decision making. As predicted, parents were perceived as most important in certain "future-oriented" areas, whereas for "current" decisions, friends' opinions were more valued. Several areas of possible parent-peer conflict were also identified. (Authors).
This paper briefly describes the uses to which peer counsellors have been put out and benefits gained at Arvada West High School, Arvada, Colorado. (SS).
This article suggests that peers are naturally available for adolescents in need, and that, with appropriate training and guidance, they can effectively work with one another in school and social settings. The article describes one approach to training student peer counsellors that appears to be practical, cost efficient and effective. (Author/SS).
A brief description of a peer education program designed to combat drug abuse at Charles P. Allen High School in Bedford, Nova Scotia. (RAC).
A method of explaining peer counselling to elementary students using a letter and experiential activities is detailed. (RAC).
One hundred and eight grade five students described as leaders by teachers and counselors were divided randomly into an experimental group, which received peer facilitator training (11 training sessions) and a control group. Each facilitator worked with a grade two or three student who was identified by teachers and a behavior checklist as having problem behaviors. Grade two students were also assigned to leaders in the control group but no meetings took place. The peer facilitators met at least 12 times with each of their "special friends." Results showed that peer facilitators who were trained did not differ significantly on self-concept or attitudes towards others when compared to the control group students. However, the primary students in the experimental group showed significant improvement in classroom behavior and school attitude. A follow-up study eight weeks later showed similar results. The authors discuss the results in terms of the impact on school climate. The training program and types of interactions with the primary students are detailed. (Authors/RAC).
The first of these two studies examined the relationship between adolescents' scores on a social desirability questionnaire and scores of negative, positive, and total life events. Only number of positive events was significantly related to social desirability. The second study compared various scoring strategies with respect to their intercorrelation and their ability to predict adolescents' maladjustment (depression, anxiety, and number of missed school days). The results demonstrated that (a) total number of events and readjustment weighted life change scores were equally predictive of the maladjustment criteria; (b) negative events, but not positive events, however scored, were significantly related to the maladjustment criteria; (c) indices based on psychologist-judges' ratings of event desirability were not more predictive of the maladjustment criteria than were indices based on the adolescents'self-reports; and (d) uncontrollable negative events and controllable negative events were equally predictive of the maladjustment criteria. (Authors).
Social support has been shown to be one way to modify the long-term effect of the death of a parent. School counsellors are in a position to be able to effect the amount and kind of support provided to bereaved teenagers. The peer support group is an effective way to help teenagers deal with a loss, one that most group participants have experienced as beneficial. This paper summarizes the effectiveness of a peer support bereavement group operating in Peel County, Ontario. (Author/SS).
The present study investigated the use of popular students in promoting the acceptance of socially neglected children. A sociometric questionnaire was administered to 573 fifth- and sixth-grade students. Ninety-five socially neglected children were identified and randomly assigned to experimental or control groups. Four to eight popular students were also selected as student peer facilitators from each class included in the study. These students were instructed weekly in social skills and assigned to work with a target child within their own classroom. Assessment after treatment indicated that students in the experimental group increased significantly in peer acceptance, whereas no significant change occurred in the control group. The authors suggest this approach could serve as an alternative to one-to-one sessions with adults, and may assist school psychologists to function more in the role of consultant and prevention agent. Anecdotal evidence indicated the peer leaders also benefitted from the experience. (Authors/RAC).
Describes implementation of a high school-level peer group facilitator program consisting of a heterogeneous group of representatives of the student body. Seventeen Ss were trained to help others as effective leaders, group listeners, and positive role models. Measures of dogmatism and self-concept taken at the beginning and end of the 5-month program suggested that Ss tended to become less dogmatic, were more open to new ideas, and felt more adequate as persons. Results also suggest that the program is a successful extension of the school guidance program. (Psyc Abstr).
Identifies some of the evaluation instruments being used in peer counselling programs in elementary schools and some essential aspects of evaluation. Evaluation is described as a feedback loop for change or improvement of programs and of validating that peer counselling works. Assessment of peer counsellors as helpers, of knowledge and skills used in the helping process, and of the outcome area described. It is concluded that whereas evaluation is important to determine when and where peer counselling works, research is needed to understand how and why it works. (Psyc Abstr).
Despite its value in helping students in the process of self-exploration, the development of insight, and the cessation of undesired behavior, group counseling has been given a low priority in the schools because of the inadequate training of many counselors and the conflict between the values of group work and increasing educational conservatism. Peer counseling, a systematized approach to helping youth learn the skills needed in coping with life, is suggested as an alternative to group counseling. (Psyc Abstr).
Describes a peer-helping program at Randallstown High School in Baltimore, which involves students directly in the educational and personal growth of their peers. Three major functions of the program are discussed: peer tutoring, peer counseling, and articulation. All three programs are administered and run by students who are trained and supervised by the guidance staff. It is argued that this program has become a strong force for change and growth in the school. The program provides immediate help to students in need, contributes to a spirit of positive educational involvement of the students, and develops leadership skills. (Psyc Abstr).
Dr. Cole explains the rationale and roles for elementary school children in a peer helping program and describes the effects on students. (RAC).
A student workbook to accompany Carr and Saunder's Peer Counselling Starter Kit. Includes illustrations, poems and supporting activities. (RAC).
A description of the creation and evaluation of a student workbook.
Provides a rationale for peer counseling as well as anecdotes concerning actions of teens which are addressed by peer counseling. (RAC).
Four groups of high school students (N=92) were each informed about a pair of helpers, either male or female, who independently helped a same- or opposite-sex peer. Within each pair of same-sex helpers, one was presented as having helped for empathic reasons and the other was presented as having helped for nonempathic reasons. The adolescents' ratings of the helpers indicated that they generally favored empathically motivated helping in both male and female peers. However, a female helper who did not express sensitivity and emotional responsiveness to the feelings of the needy other in her prosocial moral reasoning tended to be judged more harshly by the adolescents than did a male helper who failed to express such sentiments. (Authors)
Rationale and specific approach to starting an elementary program with outline of training sessions. (RAC).
A program of peer intervention in the drinking and driving of others compared with a conventional alcohol safety program in the high school setting. The peer intervention program led to significant increases in self-reported intervention behavior following completion of the course. The conventional alcohol safety program failed to produce changes in intervention behavior during this period. Both the peer intervention program and the conventional alcohol safety program led to significant knowledge gains. Neither program led to significant measured shifts in attitudes. (Journal).
The author describes a variety of peer counsellor activities and provides some personal reflections on the valve of the program for students. (RAC).
Senior high peer counsellors rated their family relationships as more satisfying as a result of their peer counsellor training. (RAC).
This survey reveals that over 203 schools in California have peer programs involving over 4615 students as peer counselors and more than 9000 students who have previously competed peer training. More than 100 student problems are addressed by peer counselors and over 50 areas of skill and knowledge are taught to peer counselors. Additional data is provided about trainer qualifications, major peer problem areas, program content, training areas, peer counselor roles, and curriculum and resource materials. (RAC).
Paraprofessional program development in school psychology is discussed with a focus on student paraprofessional models. Presented is a rationale for the paraprofessional helper concept, an overview of key issues in using paraprofessionals (program development, implementation, management, ethical and legal considerations), and descriptions of situations for using student paraprofessionals in school psychology service delivery systems. It is suggested that the full potential of paraprofessional school psychology can be realized by developing school/community interaction models. (Journal).
The incorporation of health education in the public schools began in the late 1800s for the purpose of teaching school age children the evils of alcohol and other drugs. The incidence of substance abuse, although changing in intensity and content, is still a major concern of society and educational institutions. Teaching methods are sophisticated and diverse in their approach to cognitive, attitudinal, and behavioral teaching to accommodate the needs and personalities of the students. Components of successful drug education programs are cited. Regardless of the method utilized, an ideal drug education program has the involvement of the school, parents, and community. (Author/PsycLIT).
Describes the use of the Myers-Briggs psychological typing in a peer counselling program at an all-girls school. Knowledge of types and how to make use of this knowledge is taught to the peer counsellors during training. Peer counsellors are also given specific duties to make the best use of their own type. For example, peer counsellors assist in teaching health education and psychosocial skills to younger grades. (RKY)
Examined how high school seniors consulted counselors and others to discuss post- high school plans using freshman college students as subjects (N+299). Found topics most frequently discussed with counselors were about college rather than high school or careers. Findings raise questions about why students refrain from calling on counselors more frequently for post-high school plans. (ABL).
In a short update of school "peer support" programs in general and specifically of those in Central Alberta, the author stresses the need for peer support workers to become pace-setters in helping to find new solutions to old problems. He emphasizes dynamic and effective leadership and peer support workers integrating helping skills into their own lives. (NPC).
Article stresses the philosophy and typical workings of Rap Room, an application of group processing skills in a high school setting. Students in grade 8 and up take part as well as teachers, parents and other adults. Begun in 1970 at Woodlands High School, it has grown as a concept for dealing with teenage drug problems, to become a safe forum for the expression of thoughts and feelings on a variety of topics within a group of equals. Youths involved in it have gone on to conduct workshops on the process to the Board of Education staff, parents, and younger students. As well, it was selected as a national model by the National Commission on Resources for Youth. (NC).
As a pilot for a larger statewide effort, 31 high school senior athletes, representing 15 high schools, were brought together for a four-day drug prevention institute. The purpose of the institute was twofold. First, it was designed to prepare the athletes to use their position as athletes and seniors to present prevention activities to junior high and elementary students. Secondly, it was viewed as an early intervention for the athletes themselves, some of whom were probably already experimenting with drugs. The last day of instruction was devoted to the development of action plans detailing how participants would use their new knowledge to present prevention activities to younger students. Response from local school, civic, and community leaders and post-institute student evaluations were positive. (Authors).
Study looked at the above four aspects of high school peer counseling programs by ratings on questionnaires given to 885 boys and 849 girls from 10 senior high schools in Indiana. Results indicated (a) students would tend to talk to the peer counselors mostly about school related problems rather than personal problems; (b) more females and sophomores were users of the counseling services, and only an estimated 14 percent of the student body reported having met with a school counselor; (c) overall satisfaction was an average rating; and (d) although the majority of those counseled felt that the counselors had been helpful, those being counseled for alcohol and drug related issues and other personal problems, on the majority, felt that the counselors were not helpful. These results were similar to previous findings. The authors conclude that peer counselors need to be trained in decision-making and problem-solving skills. (NPC).
Describes an elementary school program where conflict resolution has dramatically changed the school's environment. Originally, the school's peer counsellors were trained to resolve conflicts using an eight-step problem-solving model and to manage anger. Because of their effectiveness, the remaining students, teachers, and administration now use the model to manage disputes among themselves. Students report that they prefer and are usually able to manage their own disputes effectively and teachers report that conflict resolution has replaced more traditional disciplinary actions. Furthermore, the school's conflict resolution curriculum helps students learn new and better ways of responding to problems, to build positive relationships, to learn about themselves and others, and to learn how to resolve conflicts they encounter at school, at home, and in their community. (RKY).
Following a brief synopsis of the roles of peer helpers, foundations for expanding peer helper programs generally, and the conclusions of research concerning the benefits of those programs, the article focuses on developing peer helper programs. She emphasizes the components of planning, selecting, training and evaluating, and describes an elementary school student helper model of a school with 130 students with one class from each grade from kindergarten to grade 6. Peer helpers are drawn from the grade 6 class. (NPC).
This article reviews classroom research related to child-to-child interaction and its relationship to the development of social competence in young children. Studies are considered in two areas: the formation and maintenance of peer groups; and factors related to social behavior. Studies utilizing qualitative/ naturalistic methods and quantitative/correlational techniques are included. Only research which was conducted in actual classrooms (preschool, kindergarten, or elementary) and which focused on child-to-child, as opposed to teacher- to-child, interaction has been reviewed. Social competence is defined, relevant research reviewed and summarized, the relationship of child-to- child interaction to the development of social competence discussed, and implications for classroom teachers suggested. (Authors).
Fifteen high school peer tutors and 15 "special friends" interacted daily for a semester with a class of nine students with severe disabilities. Two measurement systems were employed: an attitude survey and social behavior probes. Social behavior probes were conducted with a familiar student with autism (i.e., a student from the special education class), an unfamiliar student with autism, and an unfamiliar nonhandicapped student. A pretest-posttest experimental design with control group was employed. In general, statistical comparisons of the groups indicated that serving as a peer tutor was equivalent to serving as a special friend across the two measures. However, on one measure (social interaction with an unfamiliar peer with autism) the special friends showed significantly higher levels of social interaction. Both groups interacted more frequently with the familiar student with autism than the unfamiliar student with autism or the unfamiliar nonhandicapped peer. The experimental groups produced substantially longer interactions than the control group. (Authors).
Defining and outlining the need for peer helper programs in the schools, the article details three elements necessary for successful peer helping programs: training, program management, and documentation. Also detailed, often with examples and research findings, are program applications, which include cross-age teaching, freshman orientation, and peer helpers as referral agents. (NPC).
A buddy system was used to help reintegrate pairs of learning-disabled, elementary students into regular classroom programs. Students were taught to observe, monitor, and reinforce appropriate behavior of their "buddies." Following implementation in the resource room, the program was extended to the regular class placement and resulted in improved self-control, self-confidence and general behavior. (Author/CKS).
Highlights some of the peer helping programs in Burnaby's high schools and delineates benefits to both counsellors and peer helpers alike. Some students earn credits for participation in peer counselling programs, take part in five days of training, meet weekly with peers at their school and have one block of their timetable set aside to carry out helping duties. At one school, grade 10 students greet and follow-up on new grade 8 students. At another school, each peer helper is encouraged to choose a specialty, such as personal support, working with handicapped students or multicultural enrichment. Other programs include students helping other students find jobs and collecting homework for absent students. Often, there is ongoing feedback from supervising counsellors for the peer helpers. Benefits for peer helpers include learning useful skills for communicating, problem solving, planning and structuring their time. For counsellors, benefits include the knowledge that the skills students learn will enrich their lives now and be applied more widely in the community. (Author/NPC).
A brief review and theoretical analysis of issues involved in education for life skills was used to propose ways in which to extend work which has been done in identifying major life skills about which adolescents express concern. Using interviews, essays and questionnaires as assessment procedures, two studies were designed to explore concerns, knowledge, skills, needs and attributed sources of learning in these areas. The results suggested a taxonomy of perceived concerns and knowledge, in which social relationships, personal development and career skills were central.
A description of the recruiting, selection, training and post-training activities in a Los Angeles high school. Results of an evaluation showed students increased their knowledge of appropriate communication skills, learned how to help others, and what actions to take when other students presented a variety of concerns. Peer counselors kept logs of their interactions and data is presented about the types of problems shared and the places where such discussions took place. (RAC)
A detailed plan with accompany forms to be used to assist in the evaluation of secondary school peer helper programs. (RAC)
This book is a student handbook for training peer and cross-age tutors. It includes chapters on orientation to tutoring, the basics of a helping relationship, experiential activities designed to help students learn how to use communication skills, behavior, roles and responsibilities of tutors, content approaches to tutoring, record keeping and evaluation. (RAC)
Discusses the design and implementation of a peer facilitator program called PALS (Peer Assistance Learners) for grade 7 students in a small junior high. The program educates students through modelling and teaching communication skills, as well as providing a setting of discussion groups where the students can practice skills and receive feedback. (EAK)
Examined the impact of a peer-helper intervention on the low rates of prosocial interactions of three elementary-school children. Two peers from each child's classroom were trained as helpers to increase the social interaction of socially isolated children. Multiple-baseline design and A- B-A withdrawal design was used to assess maintenance. Observations indicated that positive interactions with peer helpers and other classmates increased during intervention and were maintained in follow- up. Increases in positive interactions generalized to other settings. Classroom sociometric assessment and teacher and self-report measures provided variable support for the effectiveness of the intervention. (Authors)
This paper describes the first year of operation and evaluation of a high- school peer counselling program implemented simultaneously in two Montreal neighbourhoods. The evaluation was designed to document the program's implementation process and to measure its effects. The results show great variations in the modalities of implementation between the two sites. Formal programs appeared less successful. Students who underwent the training program showed significant improvements in their capacity for empathy and their perceived self-efficacy in one of the two sites only. Although the program was well known to the student body, few peer counselling encounters were recorded at either of the sites. The discussion focuses on the role of cultural characteristics in the implementation of peer counselling programs. The inherent difficulties related to the development of such programs are also analyzed. (Authors)
This study reports on the implementation of a buddy system by the resource room teacher as a means of assisting resource room students to reintegrate into the mainstream environment. The learning disabled students were taught to observe, monitor, and reinforce appropriate behaviors exhibited by peers. This awareness assisted the students to control their own behavior as well as to reinforce that of their buddy. (CS)
The Greater Victoria School District has recently launched a school-based mediation project in 3 schools, one junior high and two elementary schools. The schools provide a common, non-adversarial approach to school discipline for students from kindergarten to grade ten. Students are helping fellow students resolve school conflicts. (Author/CS)
Seven year old expert planners worked with five year old novice planners. Results suggest that cognitive gains are achieved when children collaborate with peers who are more expert in the problem-solving activity.