The development and implementation of a Peer Advising Program at the University of Wisconsin-Superior is discussed. The program's components and evaluation are described and observations and conclusions drawn from a working model are provided. An advisor evaluation form is appended. (MLW).
Describes using undergraduates as student advisers to free faculty from routine counseling tasks in undergraduate engineering programs at Purdue. Describes how advisers are selected and trained. (Author/DS).
Alumni programs in career counseling, such as Career Days, succeed in involving alumni firsthand with their college or university. Techniques for bringing student and alumni together are identified: extern programs, student internships in alumni relations/ career counseling, counseling, and placement programs in academic departments and others. (MLW).
Advising systems based on undergraduates as academic advisors have two inherent problems: They underestimate the importance of student-faculty interaction, and they promote a limited view of the goals of academic advising. Benefits and components of an advising model are discussed. (MLW).
A bibliography on academic advising in higher education is presented that contains 196 journal sources and 58 unpublished sources from 1960 through June 1983. The document is designed to assist both practitioners and researchers and includes many specific aspects of the process, including faculty advising, peer advising, computer- assisted advising, advisor training programs, advising centers, retention efforts, and evaluation instruments. The bibliography focuses on entries that are not already included in the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) system under the "academic advising" descriptor. (Author/SW)
A literature review exploring the effectiveness of advising systems that employ peers as academic counselors. Advantages of such programs include: economy of delivery system, accessibility to students, capitalizing on peer influence, offer positive personal benefits to the peer advisor. Points out need to address questions concerning continuity, objectivity and accountability. Identifies critical elements for program success (such as formulation of meaningful peer counseling goals). (Author/NRB).
Makes three recommendations that any department of psychology committed to improving academic advising should consider following. One recommendation: separation of the advising and registration functions and the use of peer advisors during registration time.
Over 80 peer helpers on campus (including peer counselors, resident assistants, peer advisors and peer tutors) underwent an assertiveness training program encompassing 15-20 contact hours. An overview of the training is provided.
College Student paraprofessionals led assertiveness training groups (ATGs). The assertiveness training package included modeling, behavioral rehearsal, role play, and coaching. Results suggest that ATGs conducted by paraprofessionals are effective in producing significant positive changes in reported assertive behavior.
An advising center staffed by residence hall coordinators at the University of Northern Iowa is described. Major factors for success are identified: awareness of perceptions that facilitate or inhibit establishment of advisory roles, definition of responsibilities, and definition of how advisors relate to other resources. (MLW).
Studied the effects of family network therapy on the social climate of freshmen in college dormitories. The University Resident Environment Scale found significant increases in the relationship dimensions of involvement and emotional support for peer network therapy. (Author/JAC).
Explains a helping skills training program developed for undergraduate resident assistants. Program areas included (1) exposure to various types of educational processes to improve skills, (2) active involvement in group process, (3) skill usage following program, and (4) observation and practice. (RC).
Dormitory resident assistants underwent a brief (4 hr.) crisis- intervention training that focused on knowledge and skills associated with three crisis-intervention roles: helper, behavior-change agent, and referral source. Results show that trained Ss scored significantly higher than did the controls on substantiative knowledge, interviewing skills, recall of interview content, correctness of clinical judgements and referral suggestions and overall crisis-intervention competence.
Examined the kinds of counseling problems encountered by resident assistants during 1971, 1974, 1977, 1980. A questionnaire was developed as a result of interviews with resident assistants. Findings suggested relative stability in the nature and frequency of counseling problems encountered by resident assistants. (Author).
Describes a highly cost-efficient student-staffed study skills program designed to help a large number of students. Reviews program goals and content, as well as the training, selection, and supervision of career counselors. Describes and evaluated program operation and administration. (RC).
College students who work as bartenders are seen as "gatekeepers," occupying a strategic position between mental health professionals and persons in need of help with emotional and psychological problems. A 1- day workshop is described that sought to increase the ability of student bartenders working in an on-campus rathskeller to perform these gatekeeper functions. Workshop segments dealt with the skills of listening, facilitation, and problem solving; the management of difficult situations; and referrals.
The use of a peer counselor in a staff support position in the student financial aid office at Wesleyan University is discussed. An academic credit course taught by the Director of Financial Aid was organized. Peer counselors must be selected, trained, and given responsibilities normally assigned to professionals. (MLW).
Provides an overview of a variety of concrete programs, e.g.,crisis telephone counseling service; a campus drug information center; a career information service; an outreach service; and educational advising services. Outlines the basic issues that surround such programs: training, evaluation, administrative authority. A section on self-help strategies describes women's discussion groups, residence hall self-help groups, self help training for overseas counselors, a gay self-help program, and on- the- job learning as student administrative aides. Includes a section discussion future directions of peer counseling and self help by identifying legal, educational and cross cultural perspectives. (excerpts from book).
Fifth-year baccalaureate pharmacy students are required to participate in a 16-hour rotation in the college's drug information center, including instruction in information sources and retrieval. The self-paced program includes audiovisual aids with a laboratory manual and individualized instruction. The rotation evaluation questionnaire is appended. (MSE).
The use of peer support groups is proposed as an effective intervention for dealing with personal and academic needs of college students who have learning disabilities. To structure the group sessions, the author suggests presenting issues of concern for most college students (such as: developing autonomy, establishing identity, etc.).
Describes the presentation of four vignettes by student peer counselors to increase parents' understanding of college adjustment. The use of peer counselors in role plays stimulated a more open division of sensitive topics (sexuality and autonomy). Thus, adolescent-parental separation and value conflicts were more likely to be viewed as normal developmental issues. The increased understanding of developmental stresses shared by both freshmen and their parents fostered positive attitudes towards leaving home.
This manual provides information for student operators of a hotline created to facilitate communication between students taking alternative delivery courses and college personnel. (Excerpt from HB).
Describes a radio counseling program that discussed such topics as building self- esteem, study tips, school stress, drugs, decision making, loneliness, depression, sex roles. Listeners were invited to call in during the show with questions and comments to which peer counselors responded.
An active and successful peer advising program in a college setting is discussed. The assumption was that new students needed the support and advice of experienced counselors to help them develop academic competence, and upper-division students could provide that support. (MLW).
Peer advising to supplement faculty efforts was initiated in 1981 by students in the School of Business at Ithaca College. In order to increase personalized assistance, a group of students was selected and trained in School of Business procedures, basic counseling, and college services. Peer advisers must meet a grade point average standard and submit an application with two faculty recommendations. A team of peer advisers and a faculty adviser review the applications, and final applicants undergo interviews. A 2-day training program involves team building, basic counseling skills, college support services, the writing and reading center, the educational opportunity program, and the counseling center. While continuing to provide drop-in advising services to students, peer advisers now have increased responsibilities, including newsletter writing and participating in interviews with prospective students and their parents. As part of evaluation of the peer advising service, data have been collected on the number of students requests for specific services. Common role play situations that are used for peer adviser training are identified. A list of questions for peer advising interviews and a rating form for the interviews are included. (SW).
This report describes a learning assistance program at Lamar University, Texas, designed to improve study skills and decrease attribution among college students through the use of peer counselors. The objectives of this two-credit, non-remedial course are discussed, and the material covered in the 18-week course is described.
Surveyed former peer advisors (N=201) to determine the perceived effects of a specific peer advisement program on choice of undergraduate major, selection of a career and selection of further graduate or professional training. Results suggested that peer advisement programs may have different appeals for different types of students. (LLL).
Evaluated the instrumental (specific suggestions) or empathic responses (understanding, but no advice) given by peer counselors (Study 1, N=128) or friends (Study 2, N=48) to undergraduates' personal problems. Instrumental responses were considered more helpful, but students rated peer counselors more likely to give instrumental responses and friends more likely to give empathic responses. (RAC).
Peer advisors can often help entering freshmen adjust to the environment of a large university by serving as experience guides, advisors, confidants, or friends, to whom the new students can easily relate. The Peer Advising Program at Iowa State is described. (Author/ MLW).
A survey of counseling services at 156 college campuses indicated that most offered peer counseling activities. Results are discussed in six sections: (1) peer counselor roles, (2) problems encountered, (3) quality of peer counselors and clients, (4) peer counselor training, (5) institutional constraints--funding, and (6) summary and implications. (Author/DF).
Examines changes in user service demand at a college-based peer counselling center. More detailed analyses describe changes in both absolute and relative frequency if demand for services, mode of access (telephone or walk-in) to services and types of problems presented by males and females. (Author).
This article explores the potential outcomes of out-of-the-classroom experiences as an educational vehicle for complimenting instructional efforts of higher education. The three example student services explored were student rights, student government and student counselling. (Author).
This article brings together reports on the procedures used to select student paraprofessionals on college campuses. Different selection procedures that have been tried are briefly presented. The research has not shown any one procedure to be best for all kinds of campus programs. (Author).
This article deals with male and female college students preferences for types of counsellor for various problem areas. The results indicate a trend toward preferences for female and peer counsellors, which may have implications for staffing counselling services centers. (Author).
Many college students delay seeking counselling for test anxiety until it is too late. A test-anxiety workshop using specially trained undergraduate leaders served students with test-anxiety problems. Most reported beneficial effects from the low-cost workshops. (Author).
This program extends the availability of assertiveness training to students through the use of paraprofessionals as group leaders. This article describes a format for developing a peer assertiveness-training program and is based on the author's experience conducting this program during the 1977-78 academic year at Pennsylvania State University. (Author).
The project reported on was the second phase of activities mandated by Section 493B of the Higher Education Amendments of 1976. That section required activities to assist in the expansion and improvement of campus student and information services. The project had as its objective to: (1) analyze the findings of a survey of institutional practices regarding the use of part-time financial aid counsellors; (2) draft recommendations for aid administrators, students, and other interested parties; and (3) hold public meetings to secure the recommendations before submitting them to the Office of Education. At present, it was concluded, part-time personnel are used primarily for clerical purposes and not for counselling, although their use as counsellors is expanding. Although there is little objection to their use, the primary obstacles seem to be salaries, training, and supervision needs. As far as aid information dissemination in general is concerned, it seems that there is insufficient information available to students, and that the nontraditional student is the most difficult to reach. Peer counselling and information dissemination may help keep the focus on student rather than institutional needs, although it should not be seen as a cure-all. It is recommended that institutions be encouraged to expand the use of part-time personnel, involve student employees in off- campus training, and, set up and manage part-time and peer counselling programs. Financial incentives are not seen as necessary at this time. (MSE).
The role of students as part-time employees in financial aid offices throughout the U.S. is detailed. Their counselling duties could be expanded to help improve the state of the art in financial aid for prospective and current college students. (Author/ LBH).
Methods for systematically developing a program of peer counselling in financial aid are described for administrators. Most of the ideas in this model come from members of the State of Michigan Student Financial Aid Programs. (LBH).
This two part report reviews the implementation and operation of a student counselling program conducted during 1977-78 in the developmental studies division of Southeastern Community College (SCC) with funds provided by the Exxon Education Foundation. Part I discusses: (1) the impact of the program on the college's counselling philosophy, (2) the integration of student counselling within the college's freshman orientation program, (3) the administrative problems encountered in implementing the program, (4) the provision of elective credit for student counsellors, (5) program evaluation as determined by a survey of the student counsellors and their advisees, and (6) recommendations for the implementation of student advising programs at other colleges. Part II describes the week of intensive training provided for prospective student counsellors, the target population of developmental students who were served by these counsellors, and the guidelines established for counselling contacts during the course of the program. The report is appended by the schedule of activities used during counsellor training, the criteria used in selecting student counsellors, and the philosophy statement which serves as the basis of SCC's developmental education program. (JP).
Faculty and upperclass students were trained in group techniques for freshmen advising. The 144 advisees had fewer course and room changes, disciplinary referrals and suspensions, and less residence hall damage. They also returned as sophomores in greater numbers than students who experienced traditional advising. (Author).
Administrators contemplating the implementation of an undergraduate paraprofessional advisement program have much to draw upon in assessing the advantages of such a program including effectiveness, economy, availability, accessibility, flexibility, and organizational input brought about through peer group membership. (Author).
Describes a peer counselling program that was designed to help college students make good career decisions. Two viewpoints are presented--the administrator's and the peer counsellor's.
During the past decade there has been an increase in the training of undergraduates to provide mental health services, as well as an increase in the inclusion of field experiences as legitimate credit courses. These trends have produced two effects, i.e., greater marketability for undergraduate psychology majors and greater use of trained paraprofessionals as community mental health care providers. An undergraduate Helping Skills Course, piloted in response to these trends as a complement to traditional courses and practica, incorporated a design based on three components: (1) presenting a conceptual framework using models of systematic skills training, (2) providing opportunities for increasing self-awareness and relationship-awareness, and (3) offering guided helping skills practice and feedback. Student evaluation responses on a paper and pencil measure indicated significant increases in ability to respond to problem statements with accurate empathy. (Author).
This group leader's handbook provides a set of structured activities for a workshop on peer counselling and employment skills training. Two preliminary chapters outline group leadership skills and group process techniques. The activities which can be presented in any order to suit program goals are then arranged in two major clusters: peer counselling activities and employment skills training. Twenty-eight peer counselling exercises focus on group building, goals, opportunities for non-threatening self-disclosure by group members, and the development of specific communication skills. Their general purpose is to create a high level of trust and support among group members that will form the basis for the career development activities that follow. Twenty-six employment skills training exercises are aimed at assessing a participant's needs and abilities as these relate to career planning. There are also a number of activities that develop skills in identifying career areas and planning strategies for the job search. Each activity may include purpose, approximate time, materials, procedure, and follow-up. An annotated listing of sources of occupational information and a bibliography/selected resources list provide sources of materials and activities to supplement the handbook. (YLB).
Describes a new kind of group experience being made available to students. Student participants learn to listen to each other better, to feel more positive about themselves, and to be more comfortable with their feelings. Use of volunteer non-professional group leaders and group supervision format for leaders makes program cost efficient. (Author).
This report describes a project in which college students were trained to work as counsellors in reciprocating peer relationships and compares the effectiveness of peer counselling with professional counselling. (JD).
Reports on a study to: (1) design, implement and evaluate an undergraduate peer- helping program curriculum with the major objective of facilitating cognitive/affective maturity, and (2) test the effectiveness and practicality of using formative research in designing and evaluating the program. Discusses findings and implications. (AYC).
Recommends that counselling services for lifelong learners at community college focus on developmental needs and be integrated with other programs of the college. Discusses the personal characteristics of the counsellor/educator and proposes a peer group counselling model. (JM).
Children's stories, pajamas, robes and stuffed animals provide the setting for "story hours," a very successful program in a residence hall setting, that has become a significant support group for students. "Story hours" also provides an ideal setting for exposing students to a variety of thought-provoking ideas. (Author)
The Student Health Promoter (SHP) program at the University of Arizona is a campus-based service designed to offer students an opportunity to increase their awareness of wellness activities through the use of peer counselling techniques. SHP participants are undergraduate students not necessarily enrolled in health education who serve as referral services for both campus and community health agencies. The SHP training program is a three-credit course and offers curriculum areas relating to self- care, counselling skills, general knowledge of disease and protocol treatments, general pharmacology of nonprescription drugs, health risk assessment, understanding of the University's health manual, cardiopulmonary resuscitation and basic first aid, and contraceptive information and education. Student progress during the training period is monitored by both observation and performance indicators. Selection of trainees for the program is based on a combination of personal and academic qualifications. (LH).
The utilization of students is a valuable resource in providing services for a successful learning experience. Two possible services are tutoring and peer advising. For many students tutoring is the only answer to successful academic coping. Effective tutoring requires knowledgeable, sensitive and well-trained tutors. Depending on the degree of need, tutoring can take place one on one, in groups of five or fewer students, or in workshop and classroom style settings. To insure effectiveness, faculty may certify and help train tutors, make referrals and provide pertinent information and guidance. Peer advising is another possible resource. The peer adviser may assist in handling the tutorial transaction, give individual in-depth orientation to special resources on campus, and continue to contact and offer guidance throughout the year. Peer advisers may also serve on task force committees which plan and implement programs such as publicity, student outreach, staff development, public relations and other essential developmental programs. (Author).
Successful disadvantaged college students were used as peer tutor- counsellors in a program designed to meet the needs of disadvantaged freshmen. Retention rates were compared to a group of disadvantaged students without peer tutor-counsellors. The higher rate of retention by the group utilizing tutor-counsellors is discussed along with implications. (Author/BEF).
Perceptions and perceptual changes on study habits and attitudes for students who received study-skills instruction individually from student counsellors were compared with those who received instructions and participated in class discussions and those of students who did not receive only study-skills instruction or counselling. (Author).
This anthology contains eight papers given at a symposium which brought faculty and graduate students together to share their interests and views about the counselling profession. It explores a wide variety of topics: the need for pre-retirement counselling; the views of elementary counsellors regarding their responsibilities in working with the parents of disabled children; ideas for counsellors who wish to have career counselling and placement programs at a minimal cost; Christianity and counselling from a personal perspective; extending mental health services to the elderly using a consultation and peer counselling approach; premarital pregnancy and out of wedlock births as they relate to child abuse, seating positions and group interactions; and the use of assertiveness training as it relates to therapy with couples. (Author).
The author looks at the personal and institutional barriers to college re- entry by mature women and describes a peer-group conference approach in which re-entry college women and professionals contact and counsel other women in the community who might be considering such a life change. (SJL).
The effectiveness of peer group counselling on self-concept among adult re-entry women in Women's Education Development Incentive (WENDI) programs and other related programs was studied to develop a set of guidelines for community college peer group counselling. The study involved using the Adult Nowicke-Strickland Internal- External Scale for pre- and post-assessment of seven WENDI counselling classes, use of Skinner's positive reinforcement learning strategy by peer facilitators in the classes, interviewing four WENDI staff personnel at Brevard Community College; on-site visits to women's programs at Phoenix and Mesa Community Colleges; interviewing counsellors from two Comprehensive Education and Training Act (CETA) funded women's programs; interviewing members of one WENDI class using the nominal group process technique; comprehensively reviewing related literature; and establishing an Institutional Development Team composed of Brevard staff members. Data analysis demonstrated no significant difference from externality to internality among WENDI members at the end of the course. However, there was a positive class mean shift from externality to internality. The interviews and literature review indicated self-concept and internality were enhanced by peer group counselling, suggesting that the WENDI model can be effectively transferred to other community college high risk student target areas. (TR).
Undergraduate student volunteers (N=236) were randomly assigned to one of seven experimental groups or a control group to complete the Tendency to Seek Help questionnaire. In addition, members of the experimental groups completed modified versions of the Expectancies About Counseling questionnaire designed to measure the expectancies about a helping interview with seven campus help providers: advisor, career counselor, clinical psychologist, college counselor, counseling psychologist, peer counselor, and psychiatrist. Analysis of the data revealed (a) differences in the expectancies students held for the seven campus help providers, (b) differences in the students' tendency to seek help from the seven campus help providers for personal and career problems, and (c) relationships between the students'expectancies for a help provider and their tendency to turn to that help provider for assistance with a personal or career concern. (Authors).
These authors surveyed colleges and universities across Canada to determine the type of program and scope of each institution's involvement with peer-based approaches. Results showed the extensive use of peers with college administrators more likely to contribute financially to the peer services. Peer tutoring, advising and counselling are the primary roles for peer counsellors. (RAC).
Investigated the effects of time-management peer counselling on the grades of 67 freshman undergraduates on academic probation. Results indicate that the experimental groups utilizing time-management peer counselling achieved the highest mean GPA at the end of the semester, followed by a placebo "rap session" group, a control group, and a noncontacted group of high-risk Ss.
Notes that student supervisors often have difficulty handling their newly discovered authority over their supervisees, a fact that is especially true of supervisors-in-training who have recently been on a peer level with their therapists-in-training. The present author suggests that "peervision," as opposed to supervision from the novice, is a more viable option for promoting better therapy. Baseball metaphors illustrate the uniqueness and benefits of peervision. (Authors).
Peer counsellors can be a highly effective means of counselling in academic institutions. Peer counsellors are used at the University of California, San Diego in the Academic Success Program. The targeted students to be helped are from economically or socially disadvantaged backgrounds and/or minority groups. This program was designed to ensure high-risk students success and retention rates. Trained student paraprofessionals (peer counsellors) facilitate other students' success. Training is provided to potential peer counsellors in a course entitled "The Psychology of Teaching." The class includes skills development, formation of counselling skills, conflict management, establishing relationships, and sensitivity to issues of ethnic students. A practicum component involves role playing and skill practice. Selection of counsellors is based on maturity, communication skills, and understanding of the program's goals and commitment. Once selected, counsellors receive further training in intervention skills, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, team building, campus services, and program goals. Peer counsellors help students with academic choices, financial aid, work-study opportunities, and housing clients. Academic progress is monitored and academic support is arranged when needed. Difficult problems are referred to the coordinator. Clients students appreciate the help and peer counsellors experience personal growth. (ABL).
This paper discusses practical reasons why negotiation skills ought to be taught in university and applied outside of the university setting. The author treats briefly traditional theoretical bases of negotiation and recommends his own approach to negotiation based on marketing theory and international relations. (SS).
The University of Florida has implemented a practicum program in peer facilitation. Students may enroll in an upper-division, practicum course called "Peer Facilitation." The site is the interpersonal communication classroom. The assignment is to facilitate small groups of peers in structured learning exercises. This article describes in detail the peer facilitation program, its benefits to student, class, and department. (SS).
The authors discuss a college-based academic advising program where freshmen consulted with faculty and upper level students. Program goals included increasing student satisfaction and retention, creating more effective advising services, and increasing opportunities for faculty and student contact outside of classes. The authors suggest that the peer advisors also acted as role models and as intermediaries between the freshmen and faculty and residential staff. (DdR).
A positive evaluation by 1,032 student users support use of the existing peer advisement training model and continuing the high standards for the program. The peer advisement program emphasizes the importance of interpersonal communication skills (i.e., understanding, receptivity, concern) combined with necessary academic information (i.e., college rules and regulations, registration procedures, graduation requirements); therefore, it is significant that on every one of these evaluative criteria, at least 95% of the students evaluated the peer advisers positively. Additionally, an important indication of the success of a service is the knowledge that consumers would use it again and recommend it to friends. In both these areas 99% of the respondents indicated that they would do both. (Excerpt).
This paper describes a peer counselor program which grew out of an identified need of students for counseling services sought through the teaching personnel of the psychology department. Limited time and manpower to handle the problems presented by students seeking help resulted in the need for the peer counseling program. It was also thought that training and counseling experiences could be beneficial to the peer counselors themselves. From the inception of the program, it was understood that the peer counselors could not be paid, nor would they receive academic credit for serving as peer counselors. (Authors).
The effects of peer-counseling training on Black students in a predominantly White university were found to be significant in furthering psychological growth. (Authors/DdR).
Describes the implementation of a formalized peer support program at a midwestern medical school and the process by which it contributed to the creation of a campus mental health facility. (Psyc Abstr).
Studied the training of 10 male volunteer undergraduates (mean age 19 years) as nonprofessional peer counselors to determine the effects of the peer counseling program (PCP) on the Ss' self-concept and to review the effectiveness of the peer counseling model. Ss underwent a pretest, PCP, and posttest. Ss were given an index of communication developed along the lines of R. R. Carkhuff's (1969) "standard helpee" method, a Self-Concept Inventory by S. Sharma (1974), and Carkhuff's Facilitative Interpersonal Functioning (1969) to evaluate learned skills. The nonparametric sign test assessed significant differences among the means for all variables except 2 skills--self-disclosure and confrontation. The PCP produced a significant improvement in the overall counseling skills and some improvement in individual skills. Results indicate a favorable and encouraging trend of peer counseling in India. (Psyc Abstr).
Compared the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of 3 methods of career planning (career counseling, peer counseling, self-directed study) for 68 liberal arts majors (mean age 19 years). The results revealed no significant differences among methods, but there were significant, although modest, pretest-posttest gains in career maturity and achievement. The directed self-study method was the most cost-effective intervention. (Psyc Abstr).
Reviews recent research on the use of objective personality measures to determine the personality characteristics of undergraduate paraprofessionals who are rated as more effective performers. While several objective measures and research designs have been employed, no consistent pattern of personal attributes descriptive of more effective student paraprofessionals has emerged. (Psyc Abstr).
79 female and 65 male university students completed an affective sensitivity scale and conducted analog peer-counseling interviews with 144 student volunteers in same- gender dyads. Following the interview, the volunteers responded to the empathy scale of a relationship inventory developed by G. T. Barrett-Lennard (unpublished manuscript); simultaneously, interviewers were asked to predict their interviewees' responses to this same instrument. A moderately high positive correlation was found between predictive accuracy and received empathy, supporting Barrett-Lennard's (see PA, Vol. 65:10362) expectation that the convergence measure should be moderately correlated with a measure of Phase 3 (received) empathy and contrasting with findings of prior research on the relation between prediction and communication. Affective sensitivity scale scores were unrelated to either predictive accuracy or received empathy. Results are discussed in terms of theory regarding relations among three central components of Barrett-Lennard's concept of the empathic process. (Psyc Abstr).
Describes a program developed to identify individuals in sorority and fraternity houses with whom peers discussed personal, academic, or group-living problems. Identified Ss were able to commit themselves to a 20-hour training program emphasizing team building, basic counseling skills, resource and referral information, and crisis- intervention training. Monthly inservice programs focused on specific topics (e.g., time managment, female-male relationships, motivation, suicide intervention, problems of group living). (Psyc Abstr).
A college program is described that employs peer counselors in services that expand traditional counseling and advising roles. Networking among peer counselors in such areas as recruitment, training, supervision, office administration, program promotion, and development is discussed. (Psyc Abstr).
Seventy-eight students enrolled in summer-session college courses were randomly assigned to serve either as counselors or as clients for a 20- minute, role-played peer counseling session. Ss completed a battery of standardized personality measures, including the Personality Research Form. Each counselor interacted with two clients. Prior to the sessions, the counselor was led to believe that one of the clients was especially introverted and the the other client was especially extraverted. Dependent measures were based on clients' change scores on a mood adjective rating scale administered before and after the peer counseling sessions. Analyses showed that counselors who were more successful at biasing their clients in the direction of their expectancies (a) scored higher on measures of dogmatism, nurturance, and social recognition; (b) scored lower on impulsivity; and (c) were more likely to be female. Clients who were more susceptible to counselor bias scored higher on the Self- Monitoring Scale, its Other-Directedness subscale, and social recognition. (Psyc Abstr).
Examined whether the elements of a helping interview could be created in an unsolicited telephone call. Four peer advisors placed a total of 247 calls to a stratified random sample of college freshmen. The majority of students called felt at ease with advisors (89%), felt free to talk about concerns (86%), agreed that the calls were informative (56%), reported that the calls made the university feel less impersonal (68%), and believed the calls were helpful (70%). (Psyc Abstr).
Describes a peer advisement program designed to meet freshmen college adjustment needs. Sophomores and juniors were recruited and trained in communication skills, assertiveness, crisis identification and referral, alcohol and drug abuse, and career planning. Of 146 Ss who completed an evaluation of the peer advisement groups, 92% reported that the groups had aided them in adjusting to campus life, and 91% said the program reduced the need to seek other counseling services. (Peer Abstr).
Describes a university peer nutrition consulting service designed to meet student needs for nutrition information and to provide practical, experiential activities related to future careers in nutrition to upperclassmen and graduate students majoring in dietetics. (Psyc Abstr).
Support groups and various other supportive efforts have been reported to be a positive factor in the management of stress. In the present paper, the author reviews medical residency programs that offer support groups and have taken other steps in support of the residents' adjustment. The author suggests that residency programs might offer residents support groups that are flexible and convenient and might provide other psychological and social support. Support can be institutionalized through the provision of advisors, individual and marital counseling, and recognition of the importance of residents' emotional health and development. (Author).
A stratfied random sample of college student affairs divisions was surveyed to assess the depth and breadth of student paraprofessional use. More than 72% of the responding institutions reported having one or more student paraprofessional programs. (Authors).
Identifies stresses and common concerns experienced by returning, older students and briefly describes a support group for easing the transition. (RAC).
This monograph published in both French and English versions provides enough detail and information to structure effective peer programs at the college and university level. Also available in French under the title: S'Aider soi-même: L'organisation d'un centre d'entraide pour étudiants. Both French and English versions distributed by Peer Resources, 1052 Davie Street, Victoria, British Columbia, V8S 4E3. (RAC).
Examined impact of assertion training on college students' ability to resist peer influence. Findings showed that 20 college students who had received the training were significantly more assertive and less conforming at posttest than 20 students in a placebo control group. (Author/NB).
Presents the results of surveys taken every three years for a 15-year period on the types of counselling issues encountered by university resident assistants. Results indicate concerns of residents varied little over the past 15 years. However, the authors acknowledge they failed to record the frequency of reporting in the survey. Furthermore, the extent to which a particular resident assistant was perceived as a skilled helper may determine the number of students who approach him or her with counselling problems. (Authors/RKY).
This study focussed on the impact of a deliberate and systematic peer- helping program aimed at assisting the first-year commuter student in the transition from high school to university. Particularly, the study was concerned with entering students' attitudes and knowledge about, and satisfaction and involvement with the university community. The authors describe the development of a peer-helping program and present comparative data among four first-year university student groups. Results indicated significant differences among the four groups. (BK).
Describes a peer-counselor training program for foreign students that capitalizes on the cultural diversity in each training group. Through cross-cultural discussions, supervised experience, and explicit training, student peer counselors learn to recognize cultural obstacles to classroom communication. (PsycLIT).
This manual was designed to reflect the current and recommended practices for the utilization of undergraduate paraprofessionals in career services. The content cited and the recommendations given were based on data received in 1987 from 163 paraprofessional program coordinators, the authors' knowledge of the literature, and their five years of professional experience. It is our intention that this manual will be of use to both practitioners interested in the development of a new paraprofessional program, and to those committed to the improvement of an existing one. A brief summary of the literature related to the use of paraprofessionals in career centers, in addition to a rationale in support of expanded roles for student staff, has been provided in Section One. An analysis of the data recently collected, as well as recommended guidelines for establishing a student paraprofessional program, have been summarized in Section Two. As most practitioners will attest, new and/or improved ideas often come from seeing what others are doing. With this in mind, selection, training, and evaluation materials from varying programs have been included in Sections Three and Four, in addition to profile descriptions of 24 outstanding paraprofessional programs. Names and addresses of 163 existing program coordinators are listed as contacts for additional information. (Authors).
Most college students express some need for academic assistance. This study shows that informal sources of help were contacted more frequently than institutional sources. Many students do not seem to be capitalizing on the opportunities to have their needs met by workshops advertised and conducted by university support services. The challenge remains to overcome the reticence of students to use the services they claim to need, or for the professional help-givers to employ other students as paraprofessional help-givers. (Authors/BK).
The functioning relation between the need for academic assistance and help seeking was examined in a university setting. Six hundred twelve students indicated their perceived need for academic assistance, expected grades, and provided self-reports of help-seeking behavior at the conclusion of an academic term. Results support the proposed curvilinear (inverted U-shaped) relation between help seeking and need for assistance. Rate of help seeking increased from low to moderate need, maximizing in the B- to C+ grade range, then decreased with high need levels. Reasons for minimal help seeking by failing students are discussed in terms of achievement attribution theory, helplessness, and self-worth. (Authors).
To study the effects of counseling by reentered peers on the one-year retention rate of nontraditional college students, 77 female students were randomly assigned to a group who received peer counseling and 78 were randomly assigned to a control group who did not receive peer counseling. Although a higher percentage of the counseled group than of the control group (57 vs. 53) were retained, the difference was nonsignificant. Suggestions for improving a replication of the study were made. (Authors).
This article reports on a workshop developed and implemented to increase resident assistants awareness of situations that may increase burnout and decrease their ability to function effectively as students and resident assistants. The workshop was presented in a three-phase format and conducted in small groups. (KM).
Peer counseling owes its beginnings to the paraprofessional movement of the 60s. During the last 15 years, there has been a growing acceptance of peer counseling, particularly on college campuses. It can be defined as the active use of listening and problem-solving skills together with knowledge about growth and development by students in order to help, advise, and counsel other students. The peer counselor assists other students by clarifying thoughts and feelings, by exploring options, or providing needed information. The use of nonprofessionals in counseling roles has a systematic research history in the literature. Further, there is evidence that preparation for the role and reflection on experience as a peer counselor can be a powerful and enabling factor in individual and group development; through providing service to others, students exercise altruism and learn interdependence in the process of individuation. Recommendations are made for program structure, function, and evaluation; it is suggested that peer counseling programs fit well into a matrix of interventions aimed at assisting student development in a learning environment conducive to growth and developmental needs. (Author).
The article describes the SHARE (Sexual Harassment/ Assault Advising, Resources, and Education) Program at Princeton University. The benefits of using peer facilitators and peer educators are described.
Focusing on students who were peer counsellors during their undergraduate years, this study examined later vocational and personal applications of skills attributed to that experience. Questionnaires were mailed to 80 alumni from the peer counseling program at Brooklyn College during the previous eight and a half years. Of the 25 returned, completed questionnaires, the respondents believed they were greatly affected (76 percent) or somewhat affected (20 percent) by training and work as a peer counselor on their personal development and vocational skills; 56 percent believed their interpersonal skills were positively affected and 36 percent believed they were somewhat affected. As well, 78 percent found their peer counselor training useful to them in their current employment situation. In comparison with participation in other activities in terms of personal growth, 91 percent rated the participation in the peer counseling program as excellent. Follow-up surveys of participation in similar college activities to better generalize these findings is advocated. (Author/NPC).
The Transition Peer Counseling Program at the State University of New York at Cobleskill is discussed. The program provides support, direction, and coping skills for students to adapt to critical life transitions more effectively. Founded on a theoretical model of life transition developed by Hopson (1981), the program offers peer counseling in three ways: a three part group peer-counseled series, dorm and classroom presentations, and one-on-one peer counseling. The model explains seven phases of transition and the program offers effective coping strategies for each phase. This article touches on the training and recruiting of peer counselors for the program, the reach of the program and methods and results of its evaluation. (Author/NPC).
The author describes a peer counselor program at the college level which uses peer counselors from a variety of cultural backgrounds to assist new students with varied cultural backgrounds to adapt to college expectations and environment. The adaptations required in the peer counselor training approach are described. (CS).
College students when in high school had more than three times as many conversations with family and friends regarding college plans, work and career than they had with counselors or other educators.
This article describes a program model which responds to changing economic trends in society. the PEERS (Programming Educational Experiences for Returning Students) model is presented as an alternative to traditional programs for returning students at the college level.
(Article not available for annotation).
The author describes an experiential approach to training tutors for working with adult learners. An approach using democratic negotiation with the learner is used as both the process and the content of the training is outlined. (CS)