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coaching news, research and literature

Coaching News, Research, and Literature
Peer Resources has access to more than 10,000 database sources from around the world. Their expert researchers scan these sources on a regular basis. Many of these database sources are not available to the general public without a paid subscription to each database.

For an up-to-date list of the best books and videos on coaching, consult our Top Coach Books List.

For a complete list of articles and their summaries about coaching visit the Peer Resources' Annotated Bibliography.

Article summaries placed in this Coaching Literature section typically deal with return on investment (ROI), rationale for coaching, references and resources about coaching, or coaching issues and critiques. Caution should be used in interpreting the results of reported "studies" since some may lack appropriate research methods, or may reflect questionable objectivity, or have not been subject to professional peer review.

Article summaries provided here are mostly listed in chronological order, but newly entered articles typically appear at the top of the list, stay for a month or two and then are entered into their chronological place.

We have also included a list of magazines or journals that feature coaching as their primary focus. Newsletters about coaching, typically published by individual coaches, are listed in on a separate page.

In some cases Peer Resources has obtained exclusive access to the full text of coaching articles and these have been placed in the Peer Resources Archives. Many of the articles are available to the public, but some are only available to members of the Peer Resources Network.

A special document is available to members of the Peer Resources Network that summarizes virtually every statistical fact or finding about coaching. It includes sections on (1) the latest results of return on investment studies; (2) an up-to-date picture of the size and scope of the coaching industry; (3) expert estimates of the financial implications of coaching and typical fees charged by coaches; (4) summaries of the research on coaching outcome studies; and (5) the latest research on perspectives regarding certification of coaches.

(Note: if you would like to receive these types of article summaries directly by email or you would like one of the information retrieval experts at Peer Resources to do the research for you, please consider joining the Peer Resources Network. Peer Resources is a non-profit corporation.)

The Top Eight Most Popular Articles:

  • Carr, R. (2011). Fee-based coaching groups: How do they work? (Comparison Chart). Victoria, BC: Peer Systems Consulting Group, Inc. Peer coaching groups for senior level managers and executives are on the rise, and several organizations have created franchises to bring decision makers together to help each other. We've compiled a list of these groups, which is periodically updated, that provides contact details, membership requirements, services provided, and fees charged. Access Chart

  • Carr, R. (2010). The state-of-the-art on coaching return on investment (ROI). Victoria, BC: Peer Systems Consulting Group, Inc. ROI or "return on investment" and "coaching effectiveness" research received considerable attention in early 2000, but since that time ROI approaches have become more individualized and in some cases rejected outright by coach practitioners in the business coaching industry. This report summarizes what is currently known about ROI, illuminates the problem areas, identifies the best known ROI resources and ROI research, and provides links to the best writing about coaching ROI. Currently only available to members of the Peer Resources Network. Access the article online.

  • Carr, R. (September, 2006). Venuto, visto, conquistare: The full report on the 2006 ICF-sponsored Summit meeting of thought leaders in coaching. Victoria, BC: Peer Systems Consulting Group.
    A comprehensive report of a two-and-a-half-day meeting of invited leaders from around the world to meet together and discuss the future vision for coaching. The topics discussed, the process used to facilitate discussion, and a range of issues identified during the meeting and during a post-meeting debriefing are presented and analyzed from the perspective of one of the participants at the session. Download the PDF version of this report. (Note: a short video summary of the conference is available to the public on the ICF website.)

  • Carr, R. (2005). A guide to credentials in coaching: Types, issues, and sources. Victoria, BC: Peer Systems Consulting Group Inc.
    With more than 195 coach training organizations issuing 65 different credentials, some with the same name, but differing requirements that can range from extensive study and practice to just a couple of phone calls, the general public as well as coaches and those interested in becoming coaches can easily be confused and bewildered. This guide identifies the various credentials, details the issues associated with credentialing, and provides a series of recommendations to strengthen both the credibility of coaching and the ability of potential coaches to sort through the hype associated with credentialing. (Download MS Word Version or PDF Version or View Online)

  • Carr, R. (2007, revised). Find the ideal coach for any purpose through a coach referral service: Is this possible?. Victoria, British Columbia: Peer Resources.
    The latest trend in coaching is to help coaches and clients find each other. The degree to which these services deliver a true match creates questions about their real purpose. But at least one of these services, The Coach Connection, provides exceptional value for both the coaches listed and the potential clients seeking a qualified coach, while another associated with a major coaching organizations is virtually worthless. (View Online)

  • Carr, R. (2005). Membership changes at the ICF: Blessing or blunder? Victoria, BC: Peer Systems Consulting Group, Inc.
    A change in membership requirements announced by the International Coach Federation in July, 2005 will have profound implications for coaching. This article examines the details of the proposed changes and analyzes them in terms of how they will impact the current role and influence of the ICF, how such changes illustrate challenges faced in the coaching field in general, and the relationship of the changes to key trends and issues in coaching. (Download MS Word Version).

  • Carr, R. (2005). Coaching statistics, facts, guesses, conventional wisdom and the state of the industry. Peer Resources: Victoria, British Columbia. (Available only to members of the Peer Resources Network.)
    Gathering information about the value, the size of the industry, scope, fiscal practices, and research findings associated with coaching can be a daunting and time-consuming task. In addition, many of the sources of information are either unreliable or inaccurate. In this up-to-date compendium, a coaching industry expert combines his academic research skills, long-term engagement with coaching, and some detective work to compile virtually everything that is known about whether coaching provides a return on investment, the size, scope, and breadth of coaching around the world, the fees associated with coaching, and concrete figures about other areas. (Peer Resources Network members can download a copy of this document from the PRN password protected area.)

  • Carr, R. (2002). Report on the 5th annual conference of the International Coach Federation.
    A description of the speaker presentations, workshop sessions and activities that accompanied the Vancouver conference. Rated as the best report ever produced about an ICF conference (or any other conference). (View Online)

The Current Literature, including coaching research and resources you will not learn about from the International Coach Federation. Most articles and all abstracts are available to members of the Peer Resources Network.

  • Besser, F. (2010). The global business guide for the successful use of coaching in organisations. Cologne, Germany: Frank Besser Publishing.

  • Sherpa Coaching. (2010). 2010 executive coaching survey. Cincinnati, Ohio: Sherpa Coaching. (Retrieved January 24, 2010 from

  • Bueno, J. (September 2010). Coaching: One of the fastest growing industries in the world. Therapy Today, 21, 7. (Retrieved September 19, 2010 from

  • Gilkes, J. (April 2010). The challenges of coaching in the current climate: How organisations are ensuring good value for their investment. Jericho Partners.

  • McKelley, R.A., and Rochlen, A.B. (2010). Conformity to masculine norms and preferences for therapy or executive coaching. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 11, 1, 1-14.

  • Grant, A.M., Cavanagh, M.J., Parker, H.M., and Passmore, J. (2010). The state of play in coaching today: A comprehensive review of the field. In G.P. Hodgkinson and J.K. Ford, International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Volume 25. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. pages 125-167.

  • Grant, A.M. (2003). The impact of life coaching on goal attainment, metacognition and mental health. Social Behavior and Personality, 31, 3, 253-264.

  • Perkins, R.D. (2009). How executive coaching can change leader behavior and improve meeting effectiveness: An exploratory study. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 61, 4, 298-318.

  • DeLisle, D.R. (June 2010). Social network building: A whole new approach to building new coaching client relationships. Business Coaching Worldwide, 6, 2. (Retrieved July 30, 2010 from

  • HDA. (2010). HDA executive coaching survey results 2010. London, United Kingdom: Author

  • Williams, R.B. (February 17, 2010). How brain science can change coaching. Psychology Today blog (Retrieved August 26, 2010 from

  • Jarvis, A. (April 2010). ICF product awareness survey findings revealed. Coaching World, 7.

  • Spence, G.B., Cavanagh, M.J., and Grant, A.M. (2008). The integration of mindfulness training and health coaching. Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice, 1, 2, 145-163.

  • Klie, S. (January 25, 2010). Moving from managing to coaching: Leaders need to build trust to improve employee performance. Canadian HR Reporter, 23, 2, 31+.

  • Crowell, B., and Kaye, B. (June 2010). Coaching for engagement and retention. Business Coaching Worldwide, 6, 2. (Retrieved July 30, 2010 from

  • Mitsch, D.J. (2010). Team advantage: The complete coaching guide for team transformation. San Francisco: (Pfeiffer) Wiley.

  • Donde, R. (May, 2010). IAG NZ coaching culture study. Sydney, Australia: Results Coaching Systems (Retrieved June 16, 2010 from

  • Turner, R.A., and Goodrich, J. (2010). The case for eclecticism in executive coaching: Application to challenging assignments. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 62, 1, 39-55. Available to members of the Peer Resources Network.

  • Down, B.R. (Ed.) (2009). Creativity coaching success stories (Volume 1). Lake George, New York: Creativity Coaching Association.

  • Lapid-Bogda, G. (2010). Bringing out the best in everyone you coach: Use the Enneagram system for exceptional results. New York: McGraw-Hill. This book can be purchased through (for Canadian orders), (for US orders), or for international orders.

  • Spaxman, A. (June 2010). How to talk about spirituality with your coaching clients. IAC VOICE, 4, 48. (Retrieved June 17, 2010 from

  • Blakey, J. (May 9, 2010). The myth of the non-directive coach. PRLog Free Press Release. (Retrieved May 15, 2010 from

  • Sibley, K. (April 30, 2010). Coach like a pro: Why women in IT need mentors. it WorldCanada. (Retrieved May 8, 2010 from

  • Sofo, F., Yeo, R.K., and VillafaĖe, J. (2010). Optimizing the learning in action learning: Reflective questions, levels of learning, and coaching. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 12, 2, 205-224.

  • Passmore, J., Holloaway, M., and Rawle-Cope, M. (March 2010). Using MBTI type to explore differences and the implications for practice for therapists and coaches: Are executive coaches really like counsellors? Journal Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 23, 1, 1-16.

  • Corbett, K.A. (February 2009). The 2009 Sherpa Executive Coaching Survey: Doing more with less. Cincinnati, Ohio: Sherpa Coaching.

  • Perkins, R.D. (2009). How executive coaching can change leader behavior and improve meeting effectiveness: An exploratory study. Counseling Psychology Journal, 61, 4, 298-318.

  • McNamara, C. (September 2009). Developing internal networks of self-directed learners using peer coaching groups. Chief Learning Officer Executive Briefings. (Retrieved September 10, 2009 from An expert in Peer Learning Circles describes the format and function of peer coaching groups, their structure, benefits and the proven outcomes. He differentiates peer coaching from action learning, and provides guidance on the factors that make such groups effective.

  • Grant, A., Cutayne, L., and Burton, G. (September 2009). Executive coaching enhances goal attainment, resilience and workplace well-being: A randomised controlled study. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 4, 5, 396-407. The complete study is available to members of the Peer Resources Network.

  • Bono, J.E., Purvanova, R.K., Towler, A.J., and Peterson, D.B. (2009). A survey of executive coachingx practices. Personnel Psychology, 62, 2, 361-404.

  • Griffiths, K., and Campbell, M. (2009). Discovering, applying and integrating: The process of learning in coaching. International Journal of Evidence Based Coaching and Mentoring, 7, 2, 16-30.

  • Biswas-Diener, R. (May 2009). Personal coaching as a positive intervention. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65, 544-553.

  • Ringwalt, C.L, Pankratz, M.M., Hansen, W.B., Dusenbury, L., Jackson-Newsom, J., Giles, S.M., and Brodish, P.H. (2009). The potential of coaching as a strategy to improve the effectiveness of school-based substance use prevention curricula. Health Education & Behavior, 36, 4, 696-710.

    Schwarz, D., and Davidson, A. (2009). Facilitative coaching: A toolkit for expanding your repertoire and achieving lasting results. San Francisco: Pfeiffer/John Wiley & Sons.

  • Gettman, H.J. (2009). Executive coaching as a developmental experience: A framework and measure of coaching dimensions. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 69, 8-A, 3209.

  • Williams, P. (2009). Developing a life coaching practice. In Innovations in clinical practice: A 21st century sourcebook, Vol 1. Allen, J.B. (Ed), Wolf, E.M. (Ed), & VandeCreek, L. (Ed); pp. 261-275. Sarasota, Florida: Professional Resource Press/Professional Resource Exchange.

  • Szabo, P., Meier, D. (2009). Coaching plain & simple: Solution-focused brief coaching essentials. New York, New York: W W Norton & Co.

  • Newsom, G. (2009). A work behavior analysis of executive coaches. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 69, 7-A, 2617.

  • Kress, D.M. (2009). A phenomenological study exploring executive coaching: Understanding perceptions of self-awareness and leadership behavior changes. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 69, 8-A, 3001.

  • Yedreshteyn, S. (2009). A qualitative investigation of the implementation of an internal executive coaching program in a global corporation, grounded in organizational psychology theory. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 69, 7-B, 4471.

  • Contreras, Y.M. (2009). A descriptive study: Coaching school leaders for 21st century schools: A new context for leadership development. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 69, 7-A, 2538.

  • Hamlin, R.G.,Ellinger, A.D., Beattie, R.S. (2009). Toward a profession of coaching? A definitional examination of coaching, organization development, and human resource development. International Journal of Evidence Based Coaching and Mentoring, 7, 1, 13-38.

  • Newnham-Kanas, C., Gorczynski, P., Morrow, D., and Irwin, J.D. (February 2009). Annotated bibliography of life coaching and health research. International Journal of Evidence Based Coaching and Mentoring, 7, 1, 39-103.

  • van Zandvoort, M., Irwin, J.D., and Morrow, D. (2009). The impact of Co-active life coaching on female university students with obesity. International Journal of Evidence Based Coaching and Mentoring, 7, 1, 104-118. (Complete study available to members of the Peer Resources Network)

  • Bresser, F. (July, 2009). Global coaching survey 2008/2009: The state of coaching across the globe. Executive summary. Cologne, Germany: Frank Bresser Consulting. Abstract and summary available to Peer Resources Network members.)

  • Levenson, A. (2009). Measuring and maximizing the business impact of executive coaching. Coaching Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 61, 2, 103-121. This article addresses the conceptual and methodological issues involved in measuring the business impact of executive coaching. The author conducted an exploratory study with 12 matched coach coachee pairs. Each pair showed varying degrees of impact of the coaching on business related outcomes. He concludes that the degree of business impact likely is related to complexity of the executive’s role, and to the relationship between the organizational environment and individual performance. The implication is that coordinating executive coaching with other leadership development, performance improvement, and rewards initiatives should increase business impact. (Complete study available to members of the Peer Resources Network)

  • Noble, C. (February, 2009). Picking a coaching speciality. Coaching World, p10. (Retrieved February 25, 2009 from The creator of the CINERGY model of conflict coaching conflict and member of the Peer Resources Network writes about the dozens of steps that she and many of her coaching colleagues have in common that helped them choose a specialty in coaching. While niche diving may not be for all coaches and it may have limitations for some, the author points out what she has done to turn specialization into an advantage in her successful coaching career.

  • McNamara, C. (September 2009). Developing internal networks of self-directed learners using peer coaching groups. Chief Learning Officer Executive Briefings. (Retrieved September 10, 2009 and available to members of the Peer Resources Network.) An expert in Peer Learning Circles describes the format and function of peer coaching groups, their structure, benefits and the proven outcomes. He differentiates peer coaching from action learning, and provides guidance on the factors that make such groups effective.

  • Gajewski, J. (July, 2008). The coach approach: Case studies on the effectiveness of executive coaching. Washington SmartCEO, 4, 7, 39-43. Eighteen top executives from US-based corporations explain why they sought coaches, describe the return on investment, and provide advice to others seeking executive coaching. (The complete article is available to Peer Resources Network members.)

  • Gajewski, J. (July, 2008). Coach's corner: Exeuctive coaches weigh in on what to look for in a coach. Washington SmartCEO, 4, 7, 44-46. A dozen executive coaches to share their perspective on what to look for when choosing a coach, red flags to avoid and steps to take to ensure the best return on investment. One coach says, "The greatest danger in my profession is the people in my profession. There are a lot of flakes out there. You have therapists who haven't made it in therapy, academics who haven't made it in academics." (The complete article is available to Peer Resources Network members.)

  • Jones, G. (August, 2008). Coaching real leaders. T+D Magazine (Retreived from on August 16, 2008). Executive coaches place leaders into two categories: safe leaders, who see only as far as the nearest benchmark and are concerned about self-preservation and approval; and real leaders, who thrive on challenges and use them as opportunities to grow and excel. A top executive position or leadership role is often a lonely and difficult place, and real leaders require a great deal of mental toughness. Coaches break mental toughness into four components: succeeding under pressure, maintaining self assurance, positive use of motivation, and focusing on important things. The article describes how real leaders and safe leaders differ with regards to high-pressue situations, other people's opinions, motivation and goals, and the role of control. All have implications for coaches on how to help safe leaders become real leaders.

  • Bresser Consulting. (February, 2008). Bresser Consulting report: Results of the European coaching survey 2007/8. Cologne, Germany: Author. Coaching associations, coaching providers and universities throughout Europe completed a detailed questionnaire about the coaching situation in their country. Results showed a high diversity of coaching approaches, practices and development stages in the various parts of Europe. The survey provides detials about the number of business coaches operating in the European union, the acceptance of coaching as a business tool, the types of coaching regarded with respect, the status of accrediting and ethics, the use of supervision, and the degree to which directive and non-directive approaches are used. (The full report is available from author.)

  • Leedham, M. (2008). If silence is golden, does a coach talk too much? The Bulletin of the Association for Coaching, 14, 6-7. A coach's reliance on "tools and techniques" may actually interfere with helping clients. Coaches may be too busy "making noise" in order to prove their worth. The author argues for coaches to hold a space for silence and reflection.

  • Naficy, K., and Isabella, L. (2008). How executive coaching can fuel professional—and personal—growth. OD Practitioner, 40, 1, 40-46. The authors define executive coaching as a "co-discovery and learning process through which the manager being coached achieves 'ah-ha' moments as a result of coach-client interactions." They use the four stage (unaware incompetence, recognized incompetence, unaware competence, recognized competence) development model with a case study to demonstrate how coaching contributes to learning and discovery. They differentiate coaching from mentoring and evaluating primarily on the degree to which listening to another's point of view (versus selling someone on your point of view) is involved. The authors also believe that some coaches are better than others with the most credible executive coaches having business experience, an investment in training from an accredited source, experience in coaching, evaluation of results on a regular basis, and solicitation of on-going feedback. They also acknowledge that some employers may be uncoachable because of fixed mindsets, feeling forced into coaching, lack of trust and openness, and feeling manipulated by performance management disguised as coaching. (The complete article is available to Peer Resources Network members.)

  • Parrot, K. (2008). Executive coaching: A market research report. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Dialogos. This excellent report updates the report published in 2005 by Peer Resouces ("Coaching Statistics, facts, guesses, conventional wisdom, and the state of the industry"). The report examines (1) coaching industry outlook and economics, including fee structures; (2) coaching outcomes and results, including impact studies and ROI; (3) organizations that support and educate coaches; and (4) how and for what services coaches are chosen by organizations. A chart included with the report provides details on 27 coaching service provides, comparing them on criteria such as size, coach experience and background; products and services offered; type of approach used; process used for contracting and engagement; and other details. (The publisher of this report, Dialogos, is a world leader and pioneer in developing dialogue and organizational learning practices. They have graciously made their report available for distribution to Peer Resources Network members.)

  • Brock, V.G. (2008). Grounded theory of the roots and emergence of coaching. Unpublished dissertation, International University of Professional Studies. Coaching is an emerging and evolving field, complex and dynamic, integrating the substance of many fields and the innovative thinking of great pioneers. The objectives of this study were to reduce confusion of what constitutes coaching, identify the influences that relevant root disciplines have on coaching; document the impact of the background of influencers have had on the discipline and its practices; and identify factors that contributed to the emergence of coaching as a distinct discipline in the late 20th century. (The full text of this dissertation as well as an executive summary are available through The Foundation of Coaching.)

  • Kofodimos, J. (2007). Your executive coaching solution: Getting maximum benefit from the coaching experience. Mountain View, CA: Davies-Black Publishing. (Members of the Peer Resources Network receive a book at no cost in exchange for a review. This review, which appears in the Peer Bulletin, was completed by Peer Resources Network member M. Ciambella. Authors and publishers are given an opportunity to respond to the review. Here is the comment from the book publisher's manager of marketing and sales: "Thank you for sharing the review of Your Executive Coaching Solution with us. We feel that you did a fine job of capturing the significance of the text. You were very thorough in your review and we don’t have anything else to add to it at this time.")

  • Holden, R. (2008). Success intelligence: Essential lessons and practices from the world's leading coaching program on authentic success. Carlsbad, California: Hay House. Psychologist Robert Holden, Ph.D., explains that the key to success is not greater effort, but greater wisdom. He emphasizes that the ultimate purpose of success for each of us is to not only to live our own life to the fullest, but to be "a friend to the world." Unfortunately, the use of the phrase "world's leading coaching program" is highly misleading and reduces the credibility of the book.

  • Thompson, H.B., Bear, D.J., Dennis, D.J., Vickers, M., London, J., & Morrison, C.L. (2008). Coaching: A global study of successful practices: Current trends and future possibilites 2008-2018. New York: American Management Association. Based on a survey of 1,030 respondents, discussions of a research team, and an in-depth review of literature, this study presents a historical view of coaching, discusses factors influencing coaching, and outlines the characteristics of state-of-the-art coaching practices, provides details about coaching practices outside of North America (Europe and the Middle East), forecasts what coaching will look like in 10 years, and reveals the results of coaching survey. (Complete article available to members of the Peer Resources Network)

  • Lorber, L. (April 10, 2008). Executive coaching: Worth the money? Wall Street Journal (Independent Street Blog) (Retrieved April 11, 2008 from A short article that includes a video report of a company that credits coaching with helping it to recover from sales losses. The article states that coaching services are "pricey" ($300/hour), and quotes the 2008 Sherpa Executive Coaching Survey. Probably the best part of this article is the blog comments provided by various coaches in response to the article contents.

  • Anonymous. (January 30, 2008). Executive coaching not just for the C-suite anymore, says Impact Achievement Group. Chief Learning Officer [Online]. (Retrieved February 13, 2008 from The elitist reputation that executive coaching seems to engender can be countered by providing practical assessments that managers can use to see the results of coaching on their roles as leaders. The creators of the assessment tools believe that such tools help accelerate performance management and tie coaching to specific business outcomes.

  • Barrett, A. (February 20, 2008). Can we talk? Stumped on strategy? Staff beyond your control? A coach can help you become a better manager. Business Week [Online]. (Retrieved February 26, 2008 from A few ideas about finding the right coach; determining whether one-on-one, business coaching with a peer group, or speed coaching might be of value. Additional links provided to brief stories about peer group coaching, speed coaching, and a video on selecting a business coach are provided. Be sure to check out the details about "speed coaching," the latest trend in the coaching industry.

  • Strenger, C. and Ruttenberg, A. (February, 2008). The existential necessity of midlife change. Harvard Business Review, 86, 2, 82-90. The authors believe that midlife can be an unprecedented opportunity for inner growth. It's a time when individuals have the greatest opportunity to become "real," and consequently can be accompanied by considerable anxiety. While motivational speakers often exploit the use of willpower and visionary thinking to make "magical transformations" during this period, true transformation requires a slow and deliberate effort. The authors recommend that anyone over the age of 45 "should have periodic meetings with coaches and consultants to help plan their second careers." This is an emerging specialty niche for coaches. (Thanks to the Gary Collins Newsletter, March 20, 2008 for identifying this article. The complete article is available to Peer Resources Network members.)

  • Passmore, J. (Ed.) (2008). Psychometrics in Coaching: Using Psychological and Psychometric Tools for Development. London, UK: Kogan-Page & Association for Coaching. Contributions from a variety of experts on how and what tools to use in a coaching engagement for reliable and valid assessment. The MBTI, TMS, OPQ, Wave, ELQ, MTQ, FIRO-B, and LSI are a few of the instruments discussed. (A copy of this newly published book is available at no charge to Peer Resources Network members for a review.

  • Lowman, R.L. ( (2007). Coaching and consulting in multicultural contexts: Integrating themes and issues. Executive coaching in a cross-cultural context. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 59, 4, 296-303. This article reviews the articles in this issue of the journal that focused on coaching and consulting in multicultural contexts. The author identifies overlapping themes and issues such as the role of perception, culture, pragmatic wisdom, and trust as well issues still to be addressed. He argues that much work remains to be done to establish an empirical basis for hypotheses generated by the journal articles. (Note: Unfortunately, this author does little to identify any differences between coaching and consulting and uses the terms interchangeably or with a slash (coach/consultant); thus the author fails to articulate one of the most important issues: the distinctions and erroneous perceptions about either role.)

  • Renner, J.C. (2007). Coaching abroad: Insights about assets. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 59, 4, 272-285. Global corporations usually settle on a list of management competencies that they use to select, appraise, and coach managers in all of their locations around the world. The asset management model described in this article evolved over several years of experience in coaching managers in underdeveloped nations from Africa through Asia. An asset management model offers a culturally appropriate framework that defines management competency in terms of three core concepts: ambition, asset leverage and innovation. The model has since proven useful as a framework for coaching inexperienced managers in small high-tech and biotech firms in the United States. (Note: This article makes no distinction between coaching and consulting; it's a good example of an author assuming the two are the same. In this article it's more likely the author is referring to consulting, not coaching; yet many of his ideas about asset management would be valuable to coaches.)

  • Hadikin, R. (2003). Effective coaching in healthcare. Edinburgh: Books for Midwives Press. Aimed specifically at midwives and other healthcare professionals, this text is designed to explain the concept of coaching in relation to healthcare practice and to evoke excellence in others by applying the principles of coaching in everyday practice. It explains the distinction between coaching and mentoring and why coaching is now emerging as a successful professional tool. This book can be purchased through (for Canadian orders), (for US orders), or for international orders.

  • Carr, R.A. (January, 2008). How coaches can give advice. Personal Success, 2, 1, 16-17. Advice giving in a coaching relationship appears to be a controversial topic. Yet, access to such advice is often the most frequent reason why clients seek coaches. How can there be such a disconnect between the anti-advice giving training that coaches receive and the desire on the part of clients to obtain such advice? This article identifies the origin of the no-advice principle, and provides a concrete alternative that enables clients to maximize their needs and coaches to maximize their skill.

  • Campone, F. (2007). Why read coaching research? UTD Coaching News, 19. (Retrieved November 30, 2007 from Using a research article that offers guidelines for matching the results of an assessment interview with the goals of a coaching setting, Dr. Campone, a coaching research expert, analyzes the research to demonstrate to coaches the values of reading research. She illustrates how coaching research contributes to reflective practice and strengthens a coaches ability to develop a professional stance.

  • Chief Learning Officer. (January 30, 2008). Executive coaching not just for the C-suite anymore, says Impact Achievement Group. Chief Learning Officer [Online]. (Retrieved February 13, 2008 from The elitist reputation that executive coaching seems to engender can be countered by providing practical assessments that managers can use to see the results of coaching on their roles as leaders. The creators of the assessment tools believe that such tools help accelerate performance management and tie coaching to specific business outcomes.

  • Claridge, M., and Lewis, T. (2005). Coaching for effective learning - A practical guide for teachers in health and social care. London: Radcliffe Publishing. This book includes useful tools and tips for anyone wanting to develop their coaching skills. NLP coaching skills appear to be at the heart of this book, a point which could have been shared on the back cover, for example. What is shared on the back cover and is effectively covered within the pages of this book is the fact that, "The book considers the adult learning process and recognises different individuals' learning patterns, adapting participants current skills to address new challenges."Read the full review

  • Baker, R.J. (2001). Burying the billable hour. The Association of Chartered Certified Accountants. While this pdf is directed towards accountants, the principles included are essential to anyone who wants to price on purpose. The author supports the idea of "value pricing" (in contrast to "cost-plus pricing") and the relationship between pricing and expectations. Value pricing brings the client more directly into the picture, and the author describes the importance of emotions for setting prices and dealing with resistance. He explains using fixed pricing models, and uses inspirational quotes to illustrate various points. (A copy of this pricing document is available to Peer Resources Network members.)

  • Coutu, A. (May 26, 2006). Consulting fee rates. Consultant Journal (Online blog). A consultant details six different ways to set fees, and although focused on consulting, the methods described can be useful to coaches seeking ways to rationalize or justify their fees. A link is included for a more extensive fee-setting document. (Retrieved January 18, 2008 from

  • Leshinsky, M. (2007). The whole truth about coaching business: Why only 9% of coaches succeed, while all the rest fail, and what you must do to prosper in coaching. A leading coach and marketing expert blows away the myths associated with coaching in this provocative document. The author describes coaching as a "value creation industry" -- not a service industry. She details why most successful coaches do not have formal training in coaching, explains the trap of coaches coaching other coaches, and poses a number of strategies to grow a coaching business, including understanding niche marketing, developing a target mailing list, preventing burnout, becoming irreplaceable, and specific mastery training. )(Retrieved January 10, 2008 from

  • Peterson, D.B. (2007). Executive coaching in a cross-cultural context. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 59, 4, 261-271. Many executive coaches today find themselves working with leaders from a variety of cultural backgrounds, as well as coaching leaders who work with culturally diverse teams. It is therefore increasingly important that coaches understand the role of culture in their work. This article begins with an overview of several ways that culture plays a role in coaching, including an exploration of how assumptions (such as whether culture really tells much about an individual; the power of company versus country culture; the similarity of senior executives regardless of culture; and the influence of personality) about culture can positively or negatively impact a coach’s approach and their ultimate success with a given individual. A second section provides three general principles for coaching across cultures (search for hidden layers, personalize the approach, tailor change to individual) emphasizing the importance of using cross-cultural knowledge as a way to customize coaching to each person. The third section focuses on five essential conditions for learning—insight, motivating, capabilities, realworld practice, and accountability—and how cultural differences can influence various steps in the coaching process. A variety of examples for each condition highlight specific tools and techniques that coaches can use. (This journal issue has four other articles on cross-cultural coaching told by consultants masquerading as coaches. This is the only article written by a coach. The full article is available only to members of the Peer Resources Network.)

  • Sherpa Coaching (2008). The 2008 Sherpa executive coaching survey. Cincinnati, Ohio: Sherpa Coaching. This annual survey is the most reliable and method-sound in the coaching industry. Conducted for the third year by Sherpa Coaching, an executive coach training and certification organization, this year's survey was sponsored by the Tandy Center for Executive Leadership at Texas Christian University (Fort Worth, Texas). Over 1200 participants, mostly executive coaches and HR professionals from the U.S., Canada and 35 other countries completed the survey. Survey results answer key questions such as: (1) What is executive coaching and what background and training is necessary to gain respect? (2) Who is doing the coaching? (3) Who gets a coach? (4) What are the key reasons for using a coach? (5) How are services delivered? (6) How do coaches get their training? (7) How much does coaching cost? (8) What is the credibility of coaching? and (9) Is coaching worth the money? In addition to being a leader in providing data about trends and issues in executive coaching, Sherpa has also made its data results freely available. (Editor's Note: Sherpa's distribution policy is in stark contrast to the method-challenged data available through the largest and richest coaching association which charges a fee to obtain their survey results.) Retrieved January 15, 2008 from

  • Kilburg, R.R., & Diedrich, R.C. (Eds.) (2007). The wisdom of coaching: Essential papers in Consulting Psychology for a World of Change. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. This is a compilation of 39 articles that originally appeared in a journal of the APA. The editors have divided the articles into four sections: the history and development of coaching; conceptual models that guide practice; the methods, standards, and challenges of coaching; and case studies illustrating the different coaching methods.

  • Lages, A., and O'Connor, J. (2007). How coaching works: The essential guide to the history and practice of effective coaching. London, UK: A & C Black Publishers Limited. This book examines eight approaches to coaching (The Inner Game, the GROW model, coactive coaching, NLP coaching, ontological coaching, behavioural coaching, integral coaching, and positive psychology coaching) and shows what they have in common. Reflections on coaching are provided by a number of contributors well-known in the coaching field; the book also explains the history of coaching, including who was involved; and provides sections on developmental coaching and the future of coaching. A unique aspect of the book is a quiz about the book available on the book's website:

  • Belkin, L. (October 4, 2007). A capital idea for women. The New York Times [Online]. (Retrieved October 20, 2007 from A report on the success of the “Make Mine a Million” (M3) program ( partnership with The Coach Connection (TCC). Coaches from TCC helped M3 businesses owners to “see and understand how remarkable they really are and then getting out of their way as they take themselves, their business, and their families towards their own visions of success and happiness on their terms.” Weekly conversations with TCC coaches assisted the M3 women to dramatically grow their businesses and increase their revenues. TCC, run by Peer Resources Network member, Bill Dueease, has been rated in a comprehensive review by Peer Resources' CEO, Rey Carr, as the most effective coach referral service available to connect coaches and clients.

  • Jackson, P.Z. and McKergow, M. (2007). The solution focus: Making coaching and change SIMPLE. London: Nicholas Brealey International. An excellent review of this book by Andy Smith appears in the Autumn, 2007 (Issue 13) of The Bulletin of the Association for Coaching. This book can be purchased through (for Canadian orders), (for US orders), or for international orders.

  • Leimon, A., Muscovici, F., and McMahon, G. (2005). Essential business coaching. London: Routledge. An excellent review of this book by Gill Dickers appears in the Autumn, 2007 (Issue 13, pages 11-12) of The Bulletin of the Association for Coaching.This book can be purchased through (for Canadian orders), (for US orders), or for international orders.

  • Elkin, B. (2007). Emotional mastery: Manage your moods and create what matters. Victoria, British Columbia: This book is about how to increase emotional intelligence, develop emotional health, manage moods, overcome depression and anxiety, and create what matters most in life, work and relationships. Written by a successful coach with 30-years experience, this 90-page ebook includes stories, insights and exercises to improve resiliency and buoyancy with grace. The author candidly shares his own struggle to overcome depression, defeating self-talk, and victim-focused story-telling. He shows how he was able to extricate himself from despair by using the techniques he taught himself. He reveals simple techniques for moving from negative emotions and pessimism to realistic optimism and positive emotions. His experience and knowledge about experiential learning is illustrated throughout the book by the exercises and activities he provides to help readers understand and use the techniques he describes. (Available from Bruce Elkin.)

  • Thompson, G., and Biro, S. (2007). Unleashed! Expecting greatness and other secrets of coaching for exceptional performance. New York: Select Books. The authors details what coaching is and is not; identify the qualities of a leader coach, provide details about coaching techniques, processes and questions, and emphasize the role of coach self-development. (This book can be purchased through (for Canadian orders), (for US orders), or for international orders.)

  • Wall, B. (2006). Coaching for emotional intelligence: The secret to developing the star potential of your employees. Washington, D.C.: American Management Association. Kim Neubauer, a trainer, coach, organization development specialist, and Director of Training at The Franklin Institute has written a review of this book for Training Media Review. The review can be found at:

  • Orem, S.L., Binkert, J., and Clancy, A.L. (2007). Appreciative coaching: A positive process for change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Based on the methods of appreciative inquiry (AI) that authors detail how to engage in coaching using AI as a core. The focus is on assisting clients to uncover their own sense of wonder and joy about present life and future potentiality. A four-step model (discovery, dream, design, and destiny) is used to inspire clients and empower them to greatness. (This book can be purchased through (for Canadian orders), (for US orders), or for international orders.)

  • Galt, V. (September 15, 2007). Managing change: Coach them, don't boss them. Globe and Mail, B17. Executive recruiters and leadership development experts say coaching skills are an essential quality that they look for in candidates for promotion. Managers who spend time telling staff what to do lose credibility and instead should become more coach like and balance the need for results with assisting employees to build on their strengths. A coach who does this is quoted and a list of 24 questions to stimulate coaching reflection are included with the article. (For the complete article and questions, email Peer Resources at

  • Carr, R. (August 1, 2007). Coaching goes to the movies. Peer Bulletin, 155. [Online]. (Retrieved August 16, 2007 from Video depictions of coaching are rare, but a few have been available either as part of entertainment-oriented "reality" TV programs, or comedy skits that make fun of coaching. This article reviews what has been made available to the public and provides links to the specific resources.

  • Ong, A.D. and van Dulmen, M.H.M. (Eds.) (2007). Oxford handbook of methods in positive psychology. New York: Oxford University Press. The description of positive psychology as a foundation for coaching has led to greater interest in this psychological field by coaches. This book illuminates the research methods associated with positive psychology. The book covers areas such as wisdom, health, hope, happiness, well-being, character strengths, laughter and areas of interest to coaches working with clients to help them build on their strengths, and each chapter attempts to illustrate connections between concepts and research methods. Unfortunately, the academic tone of this book and the complexity of the research concepts presented will do little to attract practicing coaches; however, it may appeal to coaches required to engage in formal research at university-based coach training programs. (This book is available from

  • Joseph, S. and Linley, P.A. (2006). Positive therapy: A meta-theory for positive psychological practice. New York: Routledge. Coaches are often faced with making distinctions between therapy and coaching. Typically they use outdated concepts regarding "therapy" or rely on stereotypes to illustrate how the two areas differ from one another. One of the most well-known and extensively practiced forms of "therapy" - the client-centered method developed by Carl Rogers - is revisited in this book and essentially renamed, "positive therapy." The client-centered method, also known as non-directive therapy is as closely aligned with the actual practice of coaching as is solution-focused therapy (often called "solution-focused coaching"). Both methods offer a strong foundation for coaching and make it much more difficult for coaches to continue to believe that coaching and therapy have more differences than similarities. This book can serve as a wake-up call to coaches who mistakenly believe that coaching practice is a recent development with no close historical ties to classic psychological and counseling literature. (This book is available from

  • Gooderham, M. (August 14, 2007). Business coaching: 'Everyone needs a sounding board'. The Globe and Mail, B6. This articles describes how professional coaches help entrepreneurs particularly with business planning. The article states that "70 per cent of Canadian companies have fewer than 10 employees and produce 60 per cent of all services, yet about half fail within their first five years, usually because entrepreneurs don't know when, how or whom to ask for help. Business coaches can not only help deal with the problems at hand, but can also assist in preparing for the future. Although this article uses the terms "coach," "mentor," and "consultant" as equivalent, it describes how coaches can help leverage attributes and conceptualize ideas. One source quoted in the article from a coach franchise business describes business coaching as a significant and profitable business with fees ranging from a flat fee of $795.00/year to as much as $4,000/month.

  • Pawlowski, A. (August 1, 2007). Getting 'unstuck': Does your life need a coach? [Online]. (Retreived August 15, 2007 from Life coaches are described as a valuable way to improve relationships, careers and personal growth. They can help individuals frustrated with some aspect of their life, "increase happiness, peace of mind and passion," and turn visions into reality. The article states that 16 percent of coaches surveyed "said their coaching specialty is 'life vision and enhancement,' the third most popular area behind executive and leadership coaching." The article quotes a coach who reinforces the typical stereotype of the difference between coaching (forward-oriented, healthy improvement) and therapy (focuses on past "wounds" and problems). A psychologist is quoted who believes that "qualified" life coaches can be helpful, but that most people can't afford them, nor should they be involved with serious mental health problems like depression. Selecting a coach can be daunting, but getting references, asking about experience, success rates, and number of clients helped as well as trying a session (rather than just asking questions about coaching), can be useful. The article suggests using the database of two coaching associations to find a coach, yet fails to mention the most successful system for finding a coach. A coach is quoted as saying that a typical one-hour session can cost from $40 to more than $500, and that many coaches require a three-month commitment.

  • Lewis, M. (June, 2007). Coaching distinctions. Link&Learn eNewsletter [Online]. (Retrieved July 2, 2007 from The author, an International Coach Federation certified member, proposes that distinctions between coaching, mentoring and other roles are not blurry or murky, and that coaches have a role to play in educating the public about these "clear" distinctions. Brief descriptions of consulting, sports coaching, mentoring, therapy, manager as coach, and friends/family support are provided to help distinguish each of these areas from each other. The text appears to be extracted word-for-word from the ICF website (and may have also been written by this article's author). (Note: While the distinctions are helpful, they are narrow, simplistic and do not match the breadth or depth of these different relationships. They appear to be prepared by someone who has too little experience in these areas and rather than clarifying (or achieving the author's goal of clarity) wind-up creating greater misunderstanding of the practices of many people involved in these other areas.)

  • Chief Learning Officer. (July 2, 2007). Survey: Executive coaching sees downturn. Chief Learning Officer. (Retrieved July 2, 2007 from A survey of 2000 senior human resources and learning and development executives revealed that 33 percent of organizations that provide executive coaching are using it less than previously. Forty-eight percent are using executive coaches at the same rate, while 19 percent are increasing their use of coaching. The authors of the survey, a consulting and training firm located in Boston, Massachusetts, attribute this downturn to the tremendous growth experienced in recent years slowing slightly and the demands of senior management for "greater accountability and cost containment." The authors speculated the the executive coaching field itself may be overpopulated with practitioners at the present time and some involved in the field may not have the experience to back up an ROI approach to their services. In contrast, the pending retirement of the baby boomer population will create a greater need for improved skills at the middle- and senior-level positions as many unprepared executives move up in the ranks.

  • Institute for Corporate Productivity. (June 7, 2007). Coaching and mentoring programs are an underutilized leadership development tool.St. Petersburg, Florida: Author ( (Retrieved June 14, 2007 from While many corporations seek leadership improvement and most rate coaching and mentoring as important, a recent study of more than 300 organizations revealed that only 50 percent actually have such programs in place. Of those with programs in place, 82% believed that their coaching programs of average quality or below. Over 93% of mentors are recruited internally, and 68% of coaches come from in-house. Selecting coaches externally relied on recommendations from colleagues or other organizations (55%), business experience (71%), followed by recommendations and consulting experience. Mentor training occurred in 44% of the companies polled that use mentors, and 39% reported no training is required. Thirty-two percent use their mentors to train other mentors. (For more information about this study contact Greg Pemula at

  • Thomas, W. (2005). Coaching solutions resource book. Bristol (UK): Network Educational Press Ltd. (Available from A series of over 80 tools, tips, and techniques for coaching adults and young people in schools. While teachers may find this book most useful, the content can help anyone who works with individuals, teams and organizations. The book contains a concise and accessible summary of the key elements of coaching practice; foundation tools for creating focus and identifying motivators; coaching session prompts and record sheets; question banks to help coaches pick great questions; and, a variety of tools for identifying strengths, generating really motivating targets, overcoming obstacles, creating innovative solutions, helping with making decisions and evaluating progress. (This resource guide is designed to supplement Thomas, W. Coaching solutions: Practical ways to improve performance in education.)

  • Tollhurst, J. (2006). Coaching for schools: A practical guide to using coaching to build sustainable learning and leadership in schools. Essex (UK): Longman. (Available from The author shows how coaching as a developmental strategy can be used in school settings.

  • Downey, M. (2003). Effective coaching: Lessons from the coaches' coach. New York, New York: Texere Publishing. (Available from An introduction to coaching in the workplace, this book is filled with the ideas from a European business coach on how to get the most from teams. The author shows what works and what doesn't work, and includes practical exercises, stories, anecdotes, and conversations.

  • Kise, J.A.G. (2006). Differentiated coaching: A framework for helping teachers change. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, Inc/Corwin Press. (Available from Professional development for educators is an essential aspect of helping teachers to improve student achievement. Yet often such training fails to make a difference in the classroom. One reason is that the change expected form the professional development training does not attend to the individual teacher characteristics. Coaching is a way to take into account all those elements that can block change and through "differentiation" help teachers to implement successfully needed change. The author provides many examples of how this coaching process occurs in school settings.

  • Galt, V. (May 5, 2007). Coaches don't always demand more push-ups: Builder's coaching program has helped employees make better decisions, more often, on their own. Globe and Mail, B18. Forty percent of Canadian companies offer coaching to employees, and 96 percent of these employers rate their coaching programs as effective. This article describes how a building company uses coaching to improve decision-making, teamwork, and communication at all levels of the organization. The article includes a sidebar that quotes the Conference Board of Canada as stating the top reasons that companies initiate coaching programs: assist leadership development, enhance career development, orient new employees, accelerate learning, promote knowledge sharing, improve retention, transfer knowledge from retiring employees. (Available online at

  • Passmore, J. (Ed.) (2007). Excellence in coaching: The Industry guide. London: Kogan Page. (Available from (Summary available to Peer Resources Network members and at

  • Hawkins, P. and Smith, N. (2006). Coaching, mentoring and organizational consultancy: Supervision and development. Berkshire, UK: Open University Press. (Available from (Summary available to Peer Resources Network members and at

  • Hay, J. (2007). Reflective practice and supervision for coaches. Berkshire, UK: Open University Press. (Available from (Summary available to Peer Resources Network members and at

  • Bluckert, P. (2006). Psychological dimensions to executive coaching. Berkshire, UK: Open University Press. (Available from (Summary available to Peer Resources Network members and at

  • Brunning, H. (Ed.). (2006). Executive coaching: Systems psychodynamic perspective. London, UK: Karnac Books. (Available from A collection of essays by well-known coaching professionals. The authors describe their own models of coaching as well as the theoretical foundation for their perspective and practice.

  • Soundview Executive Book Summaries (August, 2006). "Coached to lead: How to achieve extraordinary results with an executive coach" by Susan Battley. Soundview Speed Reviews. This review strongly endorses the value of Susan Battley's new book. In the book, Ms. Battley, an experienced executive coach and member of the Peer Resources Network outlines her five-step coaching model (define, assess, plan, act, and review) in considerable detail. The author also provides details about typical obstacles and external factors that can derail coaching (lack of time, poor management skills, travel schedules, work load responsibilities, family obligations, and bad habits) and can be neutralized early in the relationship. Coaching often involves "sticky" or sensitive situations, and Ms. Battley provides more than a dozen scenarios to resolve them. (This book is available at

  • Williams, P. and Menendez, D.S. (2007). Becoming a professional coach: Lessons from the Institute of Life Coach Training. Dunmore, Pennsylvania: W.W. Norton & Company. Written by two members of the Peer Resources Network both master certified coaches, this book details the basic principles and crucial strategies that they have taught to thousands of coaches over the years. Beginning with a brief history of the foundations of coaching and its future trajectory, the authors take readers step-by-step through the coaching process, covering all the crucial ideas and strategies for being an effective, successful life coach, including: listening to, versus listening for, versus listening with; establishing a client's focus; giving honest feedback and observation; formulating first coaching conversations; asking powerful, eliciting questions; understanding human developmental issues; reframing a client's perspective; enacting change within clients; helping clients to identify and fulfill core values. (Available for 20 percent discount purchase from W.W. Norton and Company.)

  • Kilburg, R.R., and Diedrich, R.C. (Eds.) (2007). The wisdom of coaching: Esssential papers in consulting psychology for a world of change. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. The expensive book ($99.95) is basically a selection of articles from previous issues of the APA's Consulting Psychology Journal. The book provides a variety of executive coaching case studies, historical perspectives, practical guidance, and key research findings. Articles examine expectations, tactics and methods, and feedback from clients. While these articles were timely and to some degree ground-breaking when they were first published, the description on the APA website uses the terms "consulting" and "coaching" as if they were interchangeable. The editors also believe that coaching is a subdiscipline of consulting psychology rather than a field independent of psychology. (The book is available from American Psychology Association. A table of contents is available.)

  • Gauthier, R. (December, 2006). The do's and don'ts of executive coaching. Link&Learn eNewsletter. (Retrieved January 20, 2006 from
    An experienced executive coach provides guidance to newer coaches regarding each phase of the coaching cycle: contracting, assessment, goal-setting and action-planning, and coaching. Each phase is described in terms of appropriate and inappropriate actions or activities. For example, in the coaching phase, the author suggests that the coach prepare, but not direct, an agenda for each session. He also provides some advice on how to respond to a client who asks: "What should I do?" While the advice offered in this article is both practical and experience-rich, the author warns that coaches must remain flexible, and that the essence of coaching is helping clients to change themselves to respond effectively to people and circumstances.

  • Gray, David, E. (2006) Executive coaching: Towards a dynamic alliance of psychotherapy and transformative learning processes. Management Learning, 37, 4, 475-497. The author mistakenly believes that there are too few professional development programs aimed at coaches, and no internationally recognized qualification or professional standard. With little evidence, he concludes that much of the literature on coaching has been written by those with a human psychology perspective, and particularly psychotherapeutic approaches to support. Many businesses and managers want focused solutions to immediate problems, and the author warns coaches that they need to be aware that the coaching process may open up deep-seated anxieties, some of which are more appropriately addressed by a psychotherapeutic approach. Hence, a dynamic network model of coaching is proposed, in which psychotherapists and non-therapists collaborate to facilitate their mutual professional coaching development, learning and support.

  • International Coach Federation. (n.d.). Evolving the conversation: A summit on the future of coaching - August 10-12, 2006, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Lexington, KY: Author. A 64-page booklet providing an executive summary plus the various lists from flip charts, participant comments, and reactions to the various topics covered in this three-day meeting of coaching leaders from around the world. (The booklet is available for the International Coach Federation for $12.00.)

  • Galt, V. (November 10, 2006). Instead of feedback, how about 'feedforward'? Globe and Mail, C1. A brief report of management guru Marshall Goldsmith's talk at the Canadian Society of Training and Development convention in Toronto in November, 2006. Mr. Goldsmith pointed out that while feedback may be accurate and on-target, the past cannot be changed. Instead, he asked delegates at the convention to focus on feedforward, a technique that zeroes in on a behaviour a person would like to improve and soliciting suggestions as to how to go about making such a change. To make this system work without the criticism or judgment associated with feedback, the feedforward person listens attentively to the suggestions by others, takes notes, and does not judge the comments. Then the participants switch roles. Feedforward is typically seen as positive because it focuses on solutions and not problems.

  • Redden, E. (September 21, 2006). Outside help for 'coaching' students. Inside Higher Ed. (Retrieved September 25, 2006 from Several major universities have contracted with a private coaching company (Insidetrack) to provide coaching free of charge to students and prospective students in order to bolster retention and enrollment. Success coaches help students navigate typical stumbling blocks and focus on commitment to graduation, time management, finances, academics, and health. Most of the coaching takes place by telephone. Coaches are certified through a four-step process by the coaching company. The company charges the university approximately $30-$120 a month per student. Universities and colleges are not used to outsourcing their student affairs services so resistance to establishing such a service is strong, but the company providing has gained considerable revenue doing so. Results of the coaching have been convincing as one major university saw a 40% increase in enrollment among the 600 students who received coaching.

  • Oakeshott, I. (August 27, 2006). Call my life coach, not a spin doctor. The Sunday Times - Britain (Retrieved September 5, 2006 from,,2087-2330445,00.html)
    Government officials at the highest levels in Britain are employing coaches, but this article uses a tone that mocks the practice, describes the coaches as "personal coaches," "mentors" and "critical friends," and chastises the officials for using "life" coaches at taxpayer expense. Either the author of the article received too little information, the firm providing the coaches did an inadequate job of describing the practice, or the "chartered psychologists" providing the coaching do not understand the differences between executive coaching and life coaching. Pity!

  • Kim Berg, I. and Szabo, P. (2005). Brief coaching for lasting solutions. New York: W.W. Norton.
    The authors present a step-by-step approach to illustrate the coaching process and provide numerous case examples to illustrate how this short-time approach can manage even the most challenging clients. Basically they have adapted the solution-focused therapy approach developed by Ms. Berg and Stephen de Shazer and are now using the terms 'coach' and "coaching." They advise coaches to minimize 'problem-talk' when working with clients and instead focus on 'solution-talk.' They also urge coaches to be continually aware of their own limits, particularly emphasizing the importance of referral when handling clients in crisis.

  • Ladyshewsky, R.K. (February, 2006). Peer coaching: A constructivist methodology for enhancing critical thinking in postgraduate business education. Higher Education Research and Development, 25, 1, 67-84.
    Peer coaching (PC) is one experiential learning method that can be used to enhance the depth of learning in managerial education. The paper explores the concept of peer coaching, and reports on the experiences of 43 students who participated in a PC program as part of their postgraduate management education. Powerful learning effects are reported by participants, and characteristics for successful PC relationships are examined.

  • Pemberton, C. (2006). Coaching to solutions: A manager's toolkit for performance delivery. Amsterdam: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.
    This text introduces managers in work settings to techniques largely drawn from Brief Therapy as used in the UK by social workers, psychologists and counsellors. The book offers pragmatic tools that help managers structure helping conversations, and presents the principles of solution focused thinking in a language that is readily understandable. The author shows how those principles can be applied to a range of issues which managers may find themselves facing as willing or involuntary coaches.

  • Dube, R. (August 16, 2006). Career direction: Rookies could use a little coaching, too. Globe and Mail, Section C, 1-2.
    Used to structure, feeling more pressured than their parents, twentysomethings are hiring coaches to help navigate the waters of early working life. A sidebar provides tips on what to expect in working with a coach. Fees are quoted as being from $50.00 to $750.00/hour.

  • Orenstein, R.L. (Spring, 2006). Measuring executive coaching efficiency? The answer was right here all the time. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 58, 2, 106-116.
    The author shows that executive coaching efficacy can be measured empirically. She describes the application of an empathy questionnaire instrument to executive coaching. The findings support the hypothesis that the coaching client would be rated as changing most the behaviors directly related to stated coaching objectives; next, behaviors indirectly related to objectives, and least, behaviors not addressed in coaching. It concludes by considering the inextricability of sound practice and sound measurement.

  • Van Riper, T. (August 3, 2006). Surprising six-figure jobs. (Retrieived August 8, 2006 from
    The article describes coaching as one of the fastest growing career opportunities, and states that "20% of the 10,000 registered coaches earn six figure incomes, according to estimates from industry veterans." These coaches are described as people who "rake in money from those looking for little more than a cheerleader" and coaches who create businesses to cater to other coaches. One coach quoted in the article states that the key to a six-figure business is finding one specialty and persevering.

  • Wasylyshyn, K.M., Gronsky, B., and Haas, J.W. (Spring, 2006). Tigers, stripes, and behavior change: Survey results of a commissioned coaching program. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 58, 2, 65-81.
    A survey focusing on the effectiveness of a coaching program commissioned by a global company for high potential employees who wanted to develop their emotional competence revealed that learning and behavior change among program participants was sustained over an extended period. Successful outcomes appeared to be related to the careful scrutiny of program participants, a collaborative model, an insight-oriented coaching approach, and persistent efforts to brand the program as a developmental resource. This work also indicated areas of continued opportunity for consulting psychology to include: the developmental branding of coaching initiatives, the need for early career coaching, ways to connect coaching results to existing HR practices, how to deliver high impact coaching in cross-cultural settings, and the critical need for empirical research in the areas of coaching and organization-based consultation.

  • Wong, J.Y. (Summer, 2006). Strength-Centered Therapy: A social constructionist, virtues-based psychotherapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 43, 2, 133-146.
    The author describes Strength-Centered Therapy, a new therapeutic model based on the positive psychology of character strengths and virtues as well as social constructionist perspectives on psychotherapy. The contributions of the positive psychology of character strengths and social constructionist conceptualizations of psychotherapy are examined. In addition, the theoretical assumptions, applications, and limitations of Strength-Centered Therapy are discussed. It is argued that Strength- Centered Therapy might contribute to the revival of character strengths and virtues in psychotherapy. This therapy model brings psychotherapy closer to the foundations of coaching.

  • Berman, W.H. and Bradt, G. (June, 2006). Executive coaching and consulting: "Different strokes for different folks". Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 37, 3, 244-253.
    Frustration with the politics and economics of traditional mental health care has led many psychologists to consider shifting to or adding executive coaching as a core competency in their practices. Experience with work-related issues in clinical practice makes this appear to be a logical extension of traditional clinical and counseling work. There are many types of executive coaching and consulting, however, and only some of these relate to traditional mental health services. The authors propose a four-category model of executive coaching defined by the intersection of focus (business vs. personal) and technique (brief-directive vs. extended-Socratic). Developmental coaching, which addresses long-standing behavior problems in both personal and work settings, is most likely to fit with traditional psychological training. Training or experience in the upper levels of the business world is essential to developing the capability to help corporate leaders with a broad range of needs and situations in which they find themselves.

  • Anonymous. (May 24, 2006). Minority employees often get less coaching. Chief Learning Officer Executive Briefings, 4, 21.
    Minority employees receive less executive coaching at many companies, according to a survey of thirty-one hundred senior human resources executives. Of those employers that provide coaching, 25 percent reported that minorities get coaching at a lower rate than their proportional presence in the workforce. The balance of respondents that provide coaching indicated minority employees are coached in proportion to their numbers. Virtually no respondents reported that minorities receive executive coaching at a higher rate.

  • Turner, C. (May/June, 2006). Ungagged: Executives on executive coaching. Ivey Business Journal [Online]. (Retrieved June 8, 2006 from
    The author is an executive with a Toronto-based coaching company, and was concerned that while coaching is increasingly touted as valuable by coaches, too little information about coaching is available from those executives actually coached. She interviewed coached executives from a variety of industries; however, no details about her methodology are included. The focus of her semi-structured interviews was on what the executives perceived as the benefits of coaching. Her results, which are discussed in detail, revealed five key benefits: continuous one-on-one attention; expanded thinking through dialogue with a curious outsider; self-awareness and identifying blind spots; personal accountability for development; and just-in-time learning. Two problems were also identified: coaches provide too little information about their procedures; and coaches often fail to provide continuity between sessions (not providing an opportunity to pick-up where they left off). And contrary to statements made by one of the more popular coaching associations, executives in this study did not consider whether a coach was certified as a key element in their selection. Instead, they believed that ability to develop rapport, listen deeply, and ask challenging questions were more important characteristics.

  • Luongo, M.T. (June 6, 2006). Skilled traveler? Good coach. The New York Times [Online]. (Retrieved June 8, 2006 from
    Now there are travel coaches; that is, coaches that can help plan travel to make it more efficient, less tiring and more productive as well as actually travel with you on that business trip. The article provides snippets of comments from both coaches and clients. The International Association of Coaches is mentioned. Fees for coaches are quoted as being in the range of $500 to $3500 or more a month for three to four one-hour sessions, in person or over the phone." A coach who travels with clients is quoted as saying that fees can be $900 to $3500 a day plus travel expenses, or $275 an hour if by phone.

  • Bolt, J. (May, 2006). Coaching: A fad that won't go away. Five suggestions for getting the most out of a coach. Fast Company [Online] (Retrieved May 15, 2006 from
    As one article in a three-part series on leadership development methods, the author focuses on the exceptional growth and development of executive coaching into a billion dollar industry. The bulk of the article reports on the results of a study that included 48 organizations and 86 leaders being coached. One of the key findings was the evolution of coaching from a "fix-the-problem" approach to a "leader development" approach. Having a coach is now seen as an asset and at least 92% of those leaders using a coach would do so again. Another key finding from the leaders involved was their recommendation that business experience and ability to develop rapport were much more important than coach certification and cost - a finding that contradicts the primary direction of the International Coach Federation. The four additional suggestions include: be prepared to work hard and be challenged; make sure supervisors or bosses are supportive of coaching; use assessments to determine your own personal ROI; and find an appropriate ending point rather than letting the coaching continue indefinitely.

  • Francis, L., and Milner, J. (March/April, 2006). Champions of potential: Life coaching for older adults. The Journal on Active Aging, 5, 2, 70-77.
    The authors provide details about the connection between wellness coaching, health coaching, fitness coaching and life coaching. They describe how a life coach works, provide a sample session, explain how life coaching can help organizations as well as individuals, provide suggestions about how to use life coaching, and provide a number of resources and references.

  • Holloway, A. (Summer, 2006). Executive coaching: Mirror, mirror. Canadian Business, 79, 10, 175-176.
    Executive coaching is described as helping one company make a change that filtered down from the top to all ranks. The author indicates that executive coaching has moved from a last resort, secretive approach to focusing on bringing out the best in executives. Described as a combination of psychology, consulting and mentoring, executive coaching is more like a mirror that helps executives reflect upon what is important to them. One company quoted in the article believes they have achieved a 100% return from the coaching work. The author offers five tips for selecting a coach: expertise, experience, references, chemistry, and trial sessions.

  • Ting, S. and Scisco, P. (Eds.) (2006). The Center for Creative Leadership handbook of coaching: A guide for the leader coach. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Based on the experience and research of the Center for Creative Leadership, a leading executive coaching organization, this compilation of philosophy, advanced coaching techniques, and practical, hands-on information focuses on leadership coaching in a variety of special circumstances and with a variety of people. The book has chapters, for example, on coaching women leaders, coaching leaders of color, coaching across cultures, and coaching senior leaders. In addition the editors have included chapters on coaching for emotional intelligence, physical well-being, coaching through change and transition, coaching teams, and creating a coaching culture. A CD-ROM is included with the book. The book can be ordered from

  • Anonymous. (May 24, 2006). Minority employees often get less coaching. Chief Learning Officer Executive Briefings, 4, 21.
    Minority employees receive less executive coaching at many companies, according to a survey of thirty-one hundred senior human resources executives. Of those employers that provide coaching, 25 percent reported that minorities get coaching at a lower rate than their proportional presence in the workforce. The balance of respondents that provide coaching indicated minority employees are coached in proportion to their numbers. Virtually no respondents reported that minorities receive executive coaching at a higher rate.

  • Stein Wellner, A. (April, 2006). Do you need a coach? [Online]. (Retrieved May 4, 2006 from
    A general overview of how executive coaches work with examples from two highly successful cases that illustrate different approaches and the results clients gained. The author believes that "a good coach can transform your business; a bad one can mess it up." She cautions that coaches are great at selling themselves, and provides six ideas for choosing the right coach (establish goals, set a time frame, insist on a trial period, get references, go slow, and beware the cult of personality). The author also provides advice on how to determine what kind of coach you need (based on four pop-psychology personality type descriptions of coaches: the best friend, the guru, the number cruncher, and the drill instructor). The author states that the number of executive coaches has increased from 2,000 in 1996 to 10,000 today, and that rates can vary from several hundred to several thousand an hour, but does not provide a source for these statistics. The author also warns that "Anyone, with any amount of experience, can crown himself coach and start offering advice. Hairstylists face more stringent licensing requirements."

  • Krischer, C. (March 19, 2006). Personal planning: Coach, help me be a success. (Retrieved March 31, 2006 from
    The author provides examples of how not just the wealthy are hiring coaches to manage their lives. Many workers are hiring business coaches to help build business practice, reach goals, and help them stretch past their comfort zone. Cautions in hiring are important and three criteria are recommended: certification from the ICF, background in the area of help needed, and chemistry. The author quotes a study that says the majority of U.S. companies use formal coaching as an employee development method.

  • Dennis, J. (March, 2006). The coach of your dreams. Profit, 19.
    The author, an entrepreneur and founder of a wealth management company, details what he went through to find a coach. While coaches are plentiful, he says, finding the right one, requires careful shopping. There are many business models and considerable diversity in the coaching field. After developing a short list of coaches that learned about through referrals, he interviewed each one as if he were hiring a key employee. The sense that he could trust the coach to hold the conversation in confidence and could understanding his concerns seemed to be the criteria that sold him the most on selecting the coach he chose from a group of ten.

  • Darra, I. (January 3, 2006). Life coach could help clear career hurdle. Metro.
    A coach describes the value of coaching and having her own coach, and provides some guidance in how to select a coach.

  • Pennington Shannon, M. October/November, 2005). Coaching works for Lance Armstrong-Why not for you? Law Practice (American Bar Association), 53. [Online:].
    Lawyers can gain benefits from working with a coach to enhance performance in the many roles that law practice requires (and that are not taught in law school). The author provides brief information about how to select a coach and what to expect in the engagement. Finding a coach with experience working with legal professionals and making a commitment to doing homework between coaching sessions are two suggestions provided by the author to make coaching worthwhile.

  • McCrea, B. (September 1, 2005). Balancing act: What life coaches can teach you. Realtor Magazine Online. (Retrieved October 1, 2005 from
    Using a brief case study of how a realtor benefited from coaching, the author describes seven ways a coach can help achieve a client achieve balance and satisfaction: view the big picture, put systems in place, set priorities and goals, exploit unexplored niches, work through life's roadblocks, take a bold new direction, and learn to live and let go. In addition the author provides five tips for what to expect when working with a coach.

  • Witherspoon, R. and Cannon, M.D. (2004). Coaching leaders in transition: Lessons from the field. In A. F. Buono (Ed.) Creative consulting: Innovative perspectives on management consulting (Chapter X). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.
    Promotion and career advancement are highly prized aspects of work life, but they also present significant hurdles. Many first-time leaders and advancing executives feel poorly prepared for their new roles. Their struggles become most apparent during the transition period. Problems with people skills, corporate culture, gaining results, strategic or visionary skills, as well as a lack of experience, unrealistic expectations, imposter syndrome or inadequate preparation are some of the difficulties that rise to the surface during this time period. The authors of this article draw upon their fieldwork experiences to show how to help leaders, particularly during the first 90 days, when their actions can have a major impact on their success or failure. Of the various dilemmas faced by leaders in transition, the authors selected confused, unclear, or unrealistic expectations as the focus for this particular case study. They provide a description and rationale for the "transition coaching" they use and detail how such coaching is put into practice, particularly to help new leaders develop a "learning orientation." They share a number of techniques, including an "Appointment Charter," "Key Questions," "Productive Conversations," "System Issues," and a set of eight interrelated steps that lead to successful transition coaching assignments. They also compare and contrast two different coaching engagements to identify how to customize transition coaching for each situation. (The full text of this article is available to Peer Resources Network members through the courtesy of the article authors.)

  • Immen, W. (September 14, 2005). The new game plan: Top-to-bottom coaching. Globe and Mail, Section C, C1+.
    This article documents the increase in the organization-wide use of coaching and the power such coaching has for senior and middle managers as well as employees. Job satisfaction increased, sharing across departments improved, staff turnover was virtually eliminated, complaints from clients served by the coached company decreased, and sales hit a record high. The article includes the names of the companies involved as well as the coaches and coach training organization that provided the basis to introduce system-wide coaching.

  • Witherspoon, R. and White, R.P. (1997). Four essential ways that coaching can help executives. Greensboro, NC: Center for Creative Leadership.
    Unfortunately, we missed this valuable booklet the first time it was published in 1997, but fortunately the Center for Creative Leadership has continued to reprint copies. We received our copy directly from Robert Witherspoon, one of the authors, an executive coach with over 30 years experience as a consultant and business executive. The authors believe that the role that an executive coach plays must be based on the executive's need. They identify four primary needs: (1) coaching for skills; (2) coaching for performance; (3) coaching for development; and (4) coaching for the executive's agenda. Role clarity, particularly in the early stages of a coaching relationship is essential for clarifying expectations, developing a common language, knowing where to start, and establishing ground rules and a feedback system. In this booklet the authors detail each of these four roles, recognize that the roles can overlap, and most importantly for the reader, give brief case examples drawn from their experience that describe the situation, the process used, and the results gained for each of the four roles.

  • Salerno, S. (August 9, 2005). Qualifications needed to be a life coach: er...none. Timesonline. Retrieved August 17, 2005 from,,7-1726677,00.html.
    The author expresses some concern about coaching and the scant attention paid to qualifications. He particularly attacks the number of coaching websites that induce people to not only become clients but also become coaches. He compares this addiction for training coaches to a medical office that has a sign saying, "Would you like to see the doctor or become a doctor?". The author acknowledges the role of Thomas Leonard as a founder of the modern coaching movement and he also points out that many coaches appear to be doing the same things as psychiatrists and psychologists. Several coaches are quoted describing why coaching has become so popular and effective. Among the qualms about coaching (which he labels a "river of flowing muck") the author cites: no regulations; anyone can be a coach; practioners have too little experience in helping roles; coaches promote easy solutions; reports of success are exaggerated because the cost of failure is too high; the focus on results and speed minimize a focus on causes and real solutions.

  • MacDonald, J. (August 2, 2005). Executive coaches hired to shape leaders. (Retrieved from on August 13, 2005.)
    The author of this article makes a false start by characterizing executive coaching as previously being "highly suspect." He then states that the current interest in executive coaching has been stimulated by ROI studies (such as the MetrixGlobal study and an article in a business journal). Businesses, according to the author, use executive coaches for two reasons: leadership succession and creating a better image for the company. Coaching can also boost learning that comes from seminars or other training events to maximize putting such learning into practice, according to a coach quoted in the article. The author also likens executive coaching to teaching executives eitquette, proper cubicle behaviour, and "body odor diplomacy."

  • Association for Coaching (April, 2005). Supervision report. London, United Kingdom: Association for Coaching.
    In an effort to explore coaches viewpoints about supervision and accreditation, this UK-based professional association conducted a survey and received 162 responses. The survey covered: (1) the extent to which coaches currently have supervisors (48 percent); (2) their views about the importance of supervision (the majority were positive); and (3) reactions to the type of supervision offered by the Association as well as the Association's definition of supervision (many want wanted to view guidelines or standards, many objected to the term, and few believed supervision ought to be compulsory. In addition the survey examined "accreditation," which in the UK is equivalent to the North American use of the term "certification." Respondents were evenly divided as to the value of accreditation.

  • Brennan, D., and Prior, D.M. (2005). The future of coaching as a profession: The next five years (2005-2010): A thought paper. Lexington, Kentucky: International Coach Federation.
    A variety of thought leaders representing coaching associations, organizations and academic institutions replied to telephone interviews and email questions. This paper summarizes the viewpoints expressed, and although the participants were a diverse group, their responses, for the most part, are remarkably similar. With regard for the need to have a common definition of coaching, for example, the most of those interviewed believed that creating a universal definition of coaching was both futile and time-wasting. There was less agreement about the importance of universal standards, although most participants agreed upon the importance of standards having an empirical basis and inter-organization support. Several dangers to coaching were cited, including over promotion, incorrect labeling, incompetence, proliferation of unaccredited training, management consulting masquerading as coaching, and government intervention. Other questions asked in the study focused on how to create public confidence in coaching; funding for professional review of ethics, credentialing and accreditation; and a request to specify other key questions for future research. (A copy of this study is available to Peer Resources Network members.)

  • Ahern, G. (January, 2005). Coaching professionalism and provider size. The Journal of Management Development, 24, 1, 94-99.
    The author identifies three types of providers of coaching services: the large conglomerate, typically multinational; the solo market where coaches work as individuals; and the specialized coaching team. He asserts that provider size is the key quality-related variable distinguishing these three types and suggests how the positive characteristics associated with each size can be maximized while the negative elements can be avoided.

  • Robertson, R., Higuchi, P., & Huff, K. (November, 2004). Dynamics of internal corporate coaching: Survey report. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Coach Federation, Quebec City, Canada.
    The results of a survey regarding the prevalence, roles, requirements, metrics for effectiveness, and increase in use of internal coaches in companies in the US.

  • Lazar, J. and Berquist, W. (2003). Alignment coaching: The missing element in business coaching. International Journal of Coaching in Organizations, 1, 1, 14-27.
    Coaching in organizations often focuses on either how to address issues effectively or how to perform well in a situation. At times these interventions will prove ineffective. There is, however, another possible focus of coaching, one that confronts making sense of one's life and the fundamental values and meaning that get expressed through choice and action. This is "alignment coaching." The authors share a perspective on business coaching, distinguishing alignment coaching from both performance and executive coaching models. Using a case study illustration, further distinctions are drawn about the types of issues clients face and the type of business coaching that, when matched, can provide 'best fit' to achieve desired results.

  • Anonymous. (February, 2005). Coaching. Partner's Report, 5, 2, 10-11.
    Coaching has evolved because there is a great demand in the workplace for immediate results. Many executives are becoming proactive rather than waiting to be told to get a coach. Executive coaches Marshall Goldsmith, Stephen Fairley, and Michael Goldberg are quoted.

  • Semenak, S. (January 8, 2005). Can't stay on track? Hire a coach: Growing demand for trained life coaches. Edmonton Journal, B11.
    A description of a coach that helps a retired geologist begin a second career in massage therapy and healing meditation. The article reports that coaches charge between $150 to $500 a month and some even more.

  • Ostrov, K. (January, 2005). Hone leadership skills with an executive coach. Credit Union Management, 28, 1, 10.
    Executive coaching is a very private, efficient and effective way to gain insight into political issues and interpersonal dynamics operating in the credit union executive's work world, while giving him or her a completely confidential opportunity to sort through old behaviors and try out new approaches that might better serve the executive and the workplace.

  • Goldsmith, M. (January, 2005). Coaching leaders. Executive Excellence, 22, 1, 7-8.
    The behavioral coaching process is designed to help successful leaders achieve positive, long-term, measurable change in behavior. Columnist and executive coach Marshall Goldsmith's firm has learned to qualify its coaching clients, meaning that it only work with clients whom they believe will benefit from the firm's coaching process. The following eight steps outline his firm's behavioral coaching process: 1. Involve the leaders being coached in determining the desired behavior in their leadership roles. 2. Involve the leaders being coached in determining key stakeholders. 3. Collect feedback. 4. Determine key behaviors for change. 5. Have the coaching client respond to key stakeholders. 6. Review what has been learned with clients and help them develop an action plan. 7. Develop an ongoing follow-up process. 8. Review results and start again.

  • du Toit, A. (2005). A guide to executive coaching: Advice to managers and their organizations. Development and Learning in Organizations: An International Journal, 19, 2, 11-12.
    At present there is very little formal and credible training available to executive coaches, nor is there professional accountability to guide and monitor the quality of the profession. Although there is no blue-print available to avoid making the wrong choice when selecting a coach, the following will act as a guideline: 1. Assess the need of the individual to be coached. 2. Decide whether the services of an internal or external coach be employed. 3. Match the profile of the coach with that of the need of the individual, the issues to be explored and the organization. 4. What is the relevant experience of the coach and how much experience have they had. 5. Ensure you obtain testimonials from previous clients. 6. Decide how will quality be monitored during the coaching assignment. 7. Agree measurable outcomes for the coaching assignment. 8. Determine qualifications and any membership of professional bodies. 9. Match personal qualities and characteristics with the individuals they will coach.

  • Wasylyshyn, K.M. (Winter, 2005). The reluctant president. Consulting Psychology Journal, 57, 1, 57-70.
    Coaching CEO successor candidates is challenging and deeply nuanced in the best of circumstances. The stakes rise exponentially when the sitting CEO owns the company, resents having "anointed" an eventual successor, and has been phenomenally successful despite the bruising effects of his narcissism and toxic micromanagement. This case study describes how a data-driven, insight-oriented coaching methodology helped the CEO candidate accelerate his effectiveness, instill hope in the organization, and forge a more stable relationship with the CEO- - a sufficiently functional relationship for the future CEO to decide to remain with the company. Furthermore, this work highlights the importance of clinical skills and three coaching meta principles (traction, trust, and truth-telling). Finally, this longer term coaching engagement illustrates the dynamic role shift from coach to trusted advisor. Through this deepened relationship, coaching gains were consolidated and an objective sounding board was retained for both the CEO and his eventual successor.

  • Goldberg, R.A. (Spring, 2005). Resistance to coaching. Organization Development Journal, 23, 1, 9-16.
    Coaching has become a popular method to develop senior executives, yet its effectiveness is open to debate. First, coaching is often conducted without addressing the environment in which the executive operates, making gains derived from coaching difficult to sustain. Second, executives often resist being coached, inhibiting them from learning or acting differently. This article demonstrates executive coaching to be an effective management and organizational development tool, particularly when coaches become more aware of their own resistance to coaching.

  • Blattner, J. (Winter, 2005). Coaching: The successful adventure of a downwardly mobile executive. Consulting Psychology Journal, 57, 1, 3-13.
    This article is a review of a coaching engagement that started as a three-month contract and included a DISC assessment and wound-up spanning a two-year period. The client was an executive with a global corporation and expressed goals that included: lack of fulfillment in current position, unable to enjoy time away from work, more freedom, increase in courage and confidence, increase in energy level, have more fun, and discover purpose. The article describes the initial, middle, and final phases of the engagement and conclusions are provided from both the coach's and client's perspectives.

  • Peterson, D.B., and Miller, J. (Winter, 2005). The alchemy of coaching: "You're good, Jennifer, but you could be really good." Consulting Psychology Journal, 57, 1, 14-40.
    In the literature of the coaching profession, the voice of the client is rarely heard. This case study examines the coaching process from the perspective of both the coach and the participant, providing unique insights into the art of coaching. Beginning with background descriptions of the coach and the participant, the authors move into a discussion of the first coaching engagement, which began in 2000. Two years later, after Jennifer had been promoted into a larger and more complex assignment, the authors began working together again. The authors discuss highlights of the coaching experience from each of their perspectives and compare what was similar and different across the two coaching engagements.

  • Schnell, E.R. (Winter, 2005). A case study of executive coaching as a support mechanism during organizational growth and evolution. Consulting Psychology Journal, 57, 1, 41-56.
    This case study follows the evolution of an executive coaching consultation provided to the leaders of an organizational system over a 5-year period. The clients were part of a community outreach center in an academic medical center, and the coach-consultant was part of an internal service group. During this extended engagement, the clients' organizational system experienced a dramatic period of growth and change. The diversification of leadership roles, the dynamics of moving beyond the leadership of an organizational founder, and the challenges of rapid growth are all highlighted in the coaching content. Lessons learned from this coaching experience include an understanding of (a) the advantages of using coaching as an adjunct to other forms of organizational consultation, (b) how to manage changes in contracting and intervention goals over time, (c) how to meet the challenges of coaching to a leadership pair, and (d) mechanisms for using coaching to support leadership succession.

  • Dovey, K. and Singhota, J. (2005). Learning and knowing in teams. Development and Learning in Organizations, 19, 3, 18-20.
    Professional sports teams are highly successful in generating new knowledge in order to remain competitive in the global arena, but can the principles derived from their success be applied to the business arena. Unstructured interviews with executive coaches and elite level sports coaches revealed that organizational form is the critical determinant for learning and is probably the reason that business teams have such limited success. The hierarchical structure of most business organizations stifles the development of the social capital necessary for sustained learning and knowledge construction. Business leaders must rethink their roles and attend to creating and managing the social environment, particularly supporting peer coaching, and reduce the power management practices so easily found in business.

  • Leyes, M. (March, 2005). Meeting with success. Advisor Today, 100, 3, 66.
    According to Peter deLisser, leadership coach and author of Be Your Own Executive Coach, managers should spend 50 percent of a meeting's time preparing for the meeting, and the remaining 35% doing follow-up. Most meetings drag on ad nauseum because the person holding the meeting is ill prepared. It is best to spend a bit of time up-front and save on the back end. To prepare, deLisser gives these suggestions: 1. Know specifically what you want to accomplish by the end of the meeting. 2. Decide if you want to hold an information-sharing or decision-making meeting. 3. Have only those attend who can substantively contribute to the meetings bottom line. 4. Send out an agenda in advance with objectives listed. Other suggestions are discussed.

  • Beecham, B., Dammers, J., and van Zwanenberg, T. (November, 2004). Leadership coaching for general practitioners. Education for Primary Care, 15, 4, 579-583.
    The authors recognized the value of coaching as used in managerial circles as a technique for enhancing executive personal development. They used such coaching in a six-month pilot to provide coaching support for a group of eight general practitioner physicians involved in a leadership development program.

  • Bluckert, P. (2005). The similarities and differences between coaching and therapy. Industrial and Commercial Training, 37, 2, 91-96.
    While coaching and therapy have a number of similarities, the author shows that the two disciplines are quite different in many ways, particularly in terms of context issues bought to sessions and the ultimate intention. Typically, the skill sets required for each differ. Practical considerations such as terms of contract, length of session, pricing and boundaries also vary greatly.

  • Shuit, D.P. (February, 2005). Huddling with the coach. Workforce Management, 84, 2, 53-57.
    An executive vice president of creative entertainment at Walt Disney Parks and Resorts arrived at the position with professional experience in theater in New York, but had never had a corporate job. Working with a coach who said, "You better perform, baby, or you are out of here," and combined warmth and toughness provided a realistic appraisal of the complexities of surviving and thriving at Disney. Such success stories are feeding huge growth in the field of executive coaching. Bringing outsiders in to coach CEOs, other C-level executives and senior vice presidents is almost a status symbol for today's rising corporate stars. The author estimates that this type of coaching as become a $1 billion business in the process and he provides some critiques of the problems associated with coaching. Executive coaches Marshall Goldsmith and others are quoted as to how they go about doing their work, including deciding which clients to take on.

  • Manek, N. (December, 2004). Developing coaching skills: A practical approach for education supervision. The Clinical Teacher, 1, 2, 74.
    The author asserts that the role of education supervisors in medicine will change from being informal role models to taking part in a more active and explicit coaching relationship. Challenging issues will be discussed to raise awareness of professional and other matters in a constructive way, to encourage continued improvement in the physician trainees' sphere of work. There is limited information in the medical education literature about coaching as a learning tool for self-development, but a definition is from business, where coaching is defined as the 'art of facilitating the performance, learning and development of another," may be appropriate. The definitions of coaching and mentoring suggest that there are similarities between the two processes. In practice, any distinction may be irrelevant if we understand the skills that education supervisors require to encourage others to focus on their own professional and personal development. Some may argue that coaching is just a new fad in medical education, and that limited resources might be better used elsewhere. This view is understandable, particularly as coaching is not yet established in the armory of medical education and evidence in the medical education literature is scant. There is a need to demonstrate the positive impact that coaching has for foundation doctors; therein lies the challenge for researchers in medical education.

  • Valerio, A.M., and Lee, R.J. (2005). Executive coaching: A guide for the HR professional. New York: Pfeiffer.
    A consumer's guide for HR professionals and executives who want to be good clients and savvy consumers of coaching services. Step by step, the book defines what coaching is, who uses it, when, and why. In this comprehensive resource the authors outline the entire coaching process, include key points on the readiness for coaching, and clients' first-hand accounts of their coaching experiences. Valerio and Lee describe the roles of the HR professional, the client, the boss, and the coach and how all work together in order to achieve a successful coaching engagement. Purchase from

  • Wilson, C. (March, 2004). Coaching and coach training in the workplace. Industrial and Commercial Training, 36, 3, 96-98.
    The author focuses on coaching and how the workplace is changing from authoritarian bosses and jobs for life towards self directed learning and portfolio careers. Outlines how the Virgin Empire was built using a coaching culture and provides case histories of the implementation of coaching and coach training in the workplace. Provides some facts and figures about Return On Investment (ROI), and why companies introduce coaching. Concludes with a look into the future.

  • Anonymous. (2004). Leadership development's softer side: Coaching helps overcome resistance to feedback. Strategic Direction, 20, 6, 21-23.
    Managers often rise swiftly through the ranks on the basis of his or her technical ability only to find that, once they reach the top, these abilities pale into insignificance in comparison with the need for interpersonal and leadership skills. Such a problem is certainly not uncommon yet according to a recent study in the UK by Whitehead Mann Group, these senior executives are receiving little or no training in order to develop the necessary attributes.

  • Immen, W. (March 30, 2005). Leadership: 'C-suite' coaching losing its stigma: More CEOs, COOs and CFOs are seeking leadership consultants. Globe and Mail, Section C, 1-2.
    Executives describe the importance and impact of coaching on their ability to more successfully grow and develop themselves, their companies, and their staff. Their coaches also provide ideas about what makes coaching successful. A sidebar included with the article provides information about the factors that prompt people to hire a coach, six potential outcomes associated with good coaching, and five ideas on how to select a coach. (Note about this article: In an otherwise excellent article about the value and increasing use of coaches at the executive level, it was unfortunate that a quote from one of the individuals interviewed for the article was integrated into the headline. The person quoted was completely in error when he said that coaching once had a "stigma" or was perceived as "remedial education." My guess is that he is confusing psychotherapy, counselling or even performance management or psychology with coaching.

    One of the primary reasons that coaching has shown such rapid growth in the business world is because it does not have negative associations. Instead, as the qualified executive coaches quoted in the article point out, coaching is associated with positive growth and more effective executive decision-making.

    In addition, the same person also mistakenly says that an executive coach's role is to help a leader mesh or fit-in with the organizational culture and avoid conflicts with other executives or managers. Unless this is a specific goal outcome desired by a particular executive, it is typically neither a common practice nor a focus of executive coaching.

    It is a bit ironic that the person providing the mistaken view works for an organization that describes itself as providing executive coaches, but neither the representative nor any of the CEO coaches noted on the company website belong to either of the two leading professional coaching associations: the International Coach Federation or the Worldwide Association of Business Coaches.

    Many companies have rushed to join the rapidly-growing coaching movement by re-branding their management consultant role as "executive coaching." In many cases, however, they do not have the specific coach training from an accredited organization; they have not earned appropriate coaching credentials, and they are applying outdated deficit psychology models to effective business leadership. Their disguise as executive coaches may lead to confusion for other executives who want to gain similar benefits described in this article.

  • deLisser, P. (1999). Be your own executive coach: Master high-impact communications skills for dealing with difficult people, improving our personal image, learning how to listen, solving business problems creatively. Chandler House Press.
    Available from

  • Benedict, S.L. (April/May, 2005). Wellness coaching: A life coach's collaborative approach to integrative healthcare. Integrative Medicine: A Clinician's Journal, 4, 2.
    Personal interviews with leading professional coaches and allied healthcare organizations led the author (a member of the International Coach Federation and the Peer Resources Network) to conclude that a consensus has been reached showing coaching to be an ongoing relationship that focuses on clients taking forward action toward realizing their visions, goals, and desires. Interviews with wellness coaches and quantitative outcome studies clearly show increased return on investment (ROI) using coaching as well as improved wellness. This return was especially present for weight loss and cardio risk reduction. The benefits of life/wellness coaching are being increasingly recognized throughout the US healthcare system, particularly within complementary and alternative medicine and integrative practices. Conventional practitioners are still uncertain about what coaching is and where it might fit within their profession. The author believes there is a need for more research and outcome studies to further validate the benefits of coaching to the healthcare system and that a more health-conscious and vocal public will lead to a wider use of coaching in the healthcare profession. (Reprints or copies of this article are only available from the journal publisher. Call toll-free: 866.828.2962.)

  • Belluck, P. (March 13, 2005). With mayhem at home, they call a parent coach. New York Times. (Retrieved online March 14, 2005 from Free registration).
    This article describes the experiences of different parents and different coaches as they seek ways to help parents manage the stresses of parenting. Although unlicensed, many parent coaches have background training for well-known coaching schools and there is even a school that specializes in parent coaching. Another advantage of parent coaching appears to be the low fees charged that make it available to a wider-variety of parents who would not be able to afford the typical fees of parenting experts.

  • Steed, J. (February 18, 2005). Get a life! The goals and challenges are different but the process is the same for all seven: articulating a vision, building a structure. Toronto Star. (Retrieved February 22, 2005 online from
    This major Canadian newspaper held a contest for readers so that they could be matched with a life coach to help them achieve a personal goal. Five hundred people applied and the editors narrowed it down to seven people who were then matched with qualified local coaches. Each situation experienced by the group of seven is described and summarized by a goal statement. The newspaper will issue regular reports about the progress of the coaching connection and the ability of the participants to attain their personal/family goals.

  • Zackon, R. (November, 2004). Results of the 2004 ICF Coaching Client Survey: Small business owners and professionals. Paper presented at the annual conference of the International Coach Federation, Quebec City, Canada.
    This research paper focuses on four areas: (1) knowledge of, attitudes about and experience with coaching among small business owners and professionals; (2) the creation of a demographic profile of these coaching clients and prospects; (3) identification of client variables that correlate with successful coaching relationships; and (4) the the creation of coaching industry benchmarks that can be used to track trends over time. Business owners and professionals in the USA and Canada with (147) and without experience (201) with coaching were surveyed. The study provides considerable data with regards to the the use of coaches over time and what variables are associated with increased use. This research, conducted in 2003, is a valuable companion for comparison to a previous study: "Analysis of the 1999 Survey on Coaching in Corporate America" conducted by the ICF. (A copy of the 2004 study is available to members of the Peer Resources Network by email from Rey Carr.)

  • Dearlove, D. and Crainer, S. (Summer, 2003). My coach and I: Health, wellness, and wisdom are all fair game in the executive suite. strategy+business
    The authors show that being coached has become a mainstream activity in the executive world. They contend that while coaching is most prevalent in US boardrooms, more than half of a 2002 poll of 150 companies located outside the US revealed that the companies had increased their use of coaches. According to the authors, executive coaches charge anywhere from a "few hundred dollars to $15,000 a day" for a few telephone conversations. Coaching is described as a "combination of mentoring, professional development, and support offered through a one-on-one relationship" and focuses on "behavioral changes to hone leadership skills, enhance personal effectiveness, and correct unhelpful behaviors to improve job effectivneness." Short descriptions of what coaches do and who they work with are provided. The authors also claim that coaching has its roots in psychology citing the works of Edgar Schein (process-oriented consultation), Kurt Lewin (Field Theory), and Harry Levinson (organizational dynamics). The authors believe that most US executive coaches come from three areas: business academics, psychologists or counselors, and "self-proclaimed experts." In their concluding section the authors express a number of cautions about coaching, including its attractiveness to charlatans, the potential for being a fad, and the lack of standard training.

  • Underwood, R. (February, 2005). Are you being coached? Fast Company, 83-85.
    Although the front page of this issue of the magazine uses the title: "Do you need a career coach?" the article itself purports to be an FAQ (set of frequently asked questions) about coaching. The author states that there are an "estimated 20,000 coaches around the globe," and that the only thing they have in common is that they all use the term "coach." He believes that while certification is a good thing, most people seek out someone they can trust. The author also believes (in error) that people seek coaching for only one of two reasons: "navigating some transition in their lives or careers, or having some inkling they they're jerks, and that antisocial behavior is holding them back. Fees, the author has found, range from $10,000 per person for several face-to-face sessions with an executive coach to $50 "a pop" to work with a career coach for 45-minutes. The article ends with a repeat of an oft-cited bad experience with a coach and includes a side-bar about how the author only lasted two-days in a five-day coaching seminar. A photo is included with the article depicting a sad-looking basketball coach pointing to a play in a chalkboard. The interesting thing about this article is its cynical tone combined with actual quotes from people involved in coaching.

  • Galt, V. (January 22, 2005). Good teamwork may all boil down to good coaching. Globe and Mail, B25.
    Leading sources report that peer-to-peer coaching is on the increase as employees become task or team leaders. But coaching does not come naturally to everyone, so managers can better prepare employees for such roles through proactive coaching. Instead of telling the peer leader how to do a job, a manager needs to ask questions such as "How do you intend to handle the task?" or "What problems do you anticipate?" A proactive manager also checks regularly to make sure the employee has the resources to make progress and provides success coaching. Another key to the success of supporting peer-to-peer coaching is to help the peer coach devise their own strategies for dealing with various issues. In addition a manager can help by brainstorming progress indicators rather than constantly looking over the peer coach's shoulder. Coaching for success, the author argues, rather than just criticizing after the fact, will maximize performance, reduce errors, and increase commitment. A five question, true-false survey is included with this article to determine whether the reader takes a coaching or refereeing approach to working with employees. (A copy of this article is available to members of the Peer Resources Network by email.

  • Farfel, H. (May 29, 2002). Analytical evidence shows that coaching enhances workplace effectiveness: Studies report improvements in performance, relationships, and leadership. (Retrieved from, November 11, 2004.)
    A press release featuring a summary of several studies included those conducted by Scott Blanchard, the CEO of In one study a $2 million profitability impact occurred for a group receiving coaching yielding a 10 to 1 return on investment. The Manchester Consulting study on coaching is also quoted which documented dramatic improvements in relationships, teamwork, job satisfaction, productivity and overall work quality. A 1997 study that appeared in Public Personnel Management is also quoted. This study found that when training is combined with coaching, individuals increased their productivity by an average of 88 percent, as compared to 22 percent with training alone (see full summary of this study).

  • Sherman, S. and Freas, A. (November, 2004). The wild west of executive coaching. Harvard Business Review, 82, 11, 82-90.
    The authors decry the lack of reliable information about executive coaching and the dearth of research supporting this approach, but then go on to add only sketchy anecdotal information based on their own cases about the value of executive coaching. They point out the reasons for an increased attention to executive coaching and define executive coaching as "producing business results for employers." The success of executive coaching is based on what they call "working the triangle," which is a model of bringing together the coach, the "coachee," and the client (typically the organization as represented by a senior executive). A unique element of this article is their description of how each member of the triad needs to "qualify" for coaching: the client must recognize and believe in the purpose of coaching; coaches must have skills, focus on goals, foster independence, value truth-telling, and ask penetrating questions; and the person to be coached must have developmental needs, be motivated, and be a volunteer.

    The authors are skeptical about the need for a coach to have a specific body of knowledge or have specific credentials or memberships and instead emphasize the role that certain personal characteristics (acute perception, diplomacy, integrity, sound judgment) and rapport with the person being coached play in the effectiveness of coaching. While advanced degrees or clinical experience can be helpful, the authors believe such accomplishments can also interfere with developing trust with a business person. In addition to the cementing of a triangle of partners for coaching to be successful, the authors recommend having a contract in place early that identifies goals, expectations, and explicit procedures. (Editorial Note: This article adds very little to the coaching literature. The writing is adequate, but it's surprising that it appears in a business magazine with the editorial standards of the HBR — The authors do not mention the ICF or WABC, although there is a byline for the Executive Coaching Network. The authors really fail to live up to what seemed like their goal: to add reliable information and evidence about the effectiveness of executive coaching. At most they've duplicated what has been said already in many books and articles rather than added anything new. At worst their piece is really a commercial for their company disguised as an academic analysis. Their descriptions or generalities about the clients they mention do not produce any revelations and it's not even clear that the information would be of value to executive coaches wanting to improve their practice by learning how others manage cases. Even the title, of the article ("wild west"), which might have been chosen by the magazine editors and not the authors, is slightly demeaning to the coaching industry and contradicts the reality of the practice of executive coaching.)

  • Fitzwilliams, M. and Goodchild, S. (October 11, 2004). Britain on the couch: How we are flocking to therapists to improve our lives.
    Citing a report to be released by the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP), this article claims that 83 percent of the British population is prepared to seek professional help. Membership in the BACP has tripled (to 20,000) and other help providing services have noticed similar increases. "Life coaching is the most popular of Britain's new therapies," claim the authors and its popularity has clearly surpassed the most trusted forms of talk therapy such as counselling, psychotherapy, psychology, and psychoanalysis. Such growth has prompted the National Counselling and Psychotherapy Accrediting Bodies to establish a national register of approved practitioners of the coaching approach. One critic claims that such coaches are in the business of creating clients by promoting a sense of insecurity in people. While some professionals see this new willingness to seek help as a way of getting past previous stigma, others believe it is a way to avoid taking responsibility. The authors provide examples of how help is being provided for stress, exam worries, and bereavement.

  • Goldsmith, M. and Morgan, H. (Fall, 2004). Leadership is a contact sport: The "Follow-up Factor" in management development. strategy+business (Retrieved from on October 14, 2004 - requires registration.)
    The authors identify five types of leadership coaching: strategic, organizational change/execution, leadership development, personal/life planning, and behavioral. Their article reports how they went beyond descriptions and definitions and instead set out to determine whether such approaches work, and more specifically what approaches have the greatest impact on assisting leaders to "achieve positive long-term changes." To do so they examined leadership development programs in eight major corporations (approximately 10,000 participants). While all eight organizations shared the same umbrella goal (aligning practices with desired leadership goals), they all used different methods to reach their goals, including offsite training, onsite coaching, external coaches, traditional classroom methods, and on-the-job interactions. Effectiveness was measured by going beyond just participant perceptions of impact to also measuring the impact on co-workers and stakeholders. One key finding was that "Leaders who discussed their own improvement priorities with their co-workers, and then regularly followed up with these co-workers, showed striking improvement. Leaders who did not have ongoing dialogue with colleagues showed improvement that barely exceeded random chance. This was true whether the leader had an external coach, an internal coach, or no coach. It was also true whether the participants went to a training program for five days, went for one day, or did not attend a training program at all." The authors concluded that leadership relies extensively on relationship. Other findings included (1) the follow-up contact factor (thus the title, "leadership is a contact sport") held true for executives in both US and international corporations; (2) both internal and external coaches can make a positive difference; (3) coaches who followed-up with their clients led to clients following-up with their co-workers and employees; (4) feedback or coaching by telephone worked as well as feedback or coaching in person; and (5) continual contact with colleagues regarding development issues is so effective it can succeed even without a large, formal program.

  • Noble, C. (August, 2004). Peer conflict coaching: Another dispute resolution option. (Retrieved from
    A conflict coaching pioneer describes seven different ways that peer conflict coaches can assist in dispute resolution.

  • Joyce, A. (August 8, 2004). Reflecting on office behavior; Career coaches help people see themselves from co-workers' perspectives. Washington Post, F.04.
    A leading consulting company hires coaches to help managers improve their communication with their direct reports. While they may at first not appreciate the feedback from a coach, the managers realize that their is a conflict between how they perceive their communication style and how their employees perceive their style. The company conducted hired a consulting company to determine the return on investment of its coaching program. "The study found that all the leaders applied what they learned to improve their own development, while 53 percent went beyond that to significantly improve their relationships with teams and peers." The study concluded that the company gained $3.3 million in 2003 by providing $414,310 to coach 45 managers. This resulted in a 689 percent return on investment.

  • Jarvis, J. (2004). Coaching and buying coaching services - a CIPD guide. London, England: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.
    This 82-page document is a must for coaches interested in marketing their services. The author has summarized a number of studies and provides a thorough perspective on the state of the art of the coaching industry. The guide outlines the different professional bodies and the current training and qualification options, explains the different types of coaching, discusses the business case for coaching, considers when coaching is an appropriate intervention, discusses the different interest groups, explains the difference between and makes recommendations about internal versus external coaches, provides a list of criteria about what to look for in a coach during selection, and provides guidance and advice for human resources on recruiting and matching coaches to any organization. (Available as a free PDF download on the CIPD website.)

  • Laske, O. (2004). CDREM case study in the domain of coaching. West Medford, MA: Laske and Associates.
    This case study shows the impact of coaching on an executive in a major corporation. The report uses a holistic system to describe present performance, barriers to success, potential conflicts and other characteristics both before and after coaching. The report also shows how a coaching plan can be based on the evidence from developmental and behavioral assessments. Attention to ROI is included in the results. (This paper is available to Peer Resources Network members in the members only area.

  • Maher, K. (undated). Strategies for selecting the right career coach.The Wall Street (Career) Journal Online. Retrieved August 17, 2004 from
    The author begins the article with a story about a "coach" that didn't seem to help and goes on to emphasize the importance of carefully choosing a coach. Coaches could be in the business for the wrong (financial) reasons or may be charismatic, but have little concrete to offer. The author quotes an academic who mistakenly characterizes coaches into three groups (executive coaches, career coaches, and life coaches), and then further characterizes life coaches as people who give advice about personal relationships and emotional issues. The author advises readers to narrow the field by searching for a coach with extensive training and credible certification, but also to rely on your intuition.

  • Galt, V. (August 7, 2004). Outside coaches help employees stick-handle their careers. The Globe and Mail, B8.
    This article describes the value of external coaches in providing objective feedback to corporate executives. A coach can help a corporate employee benefit from the feedback rather than just reacting to it. In addition a coach can be more objective than colleagues. Armed with more realistic feedback an executive can plan and develop his/her career more effectively. Coaches can help executives with a variety of issues such as balancing individuality with team play, dealing with family issues that impact on work, and how to leave a legacy of value at work. A sidebar offers ideas on how to hire the right coach.

  • Cross, R. and Parker, A. (2004). The hidden power of social networks: Understanding how work really gets done in organizations. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
    The authors draw on their extensive consulting based research to provide an accessible introduction to the field of social network analysis. Mapping social networks involves surveying individual employees, intact work groups, or cross functional teams to determine who goes to whom to gather information that enables them to get their work done. Analysis of these "maps" yields information that can identify core experts, bottlenecks, and disconnects, and can yield unexpected insights into other relational and organizational issues. One chapter in the book is devoted to mapping organizational "energy," identifying those who are energizers and those who are energy sinks in the group. Executive coaches may find the concepts useful if a client were looking to analyze his or her own personal network, or to decipher the dynamics of the work being done in their organization, but the book is more of an organizational development tool. The technical expertise to actually perform an analysis would require an outside expert or an in-depth study of the methodology. However, social network analysis does provide a microscope that allows one to see things not visible to the naked eye and thus provide an executive with richer information. (Summary and review by Peer Resources Network member T. Sue Epps.)

  • Sanghera, S. (July 5, 2004). Features: I went in for coaching, but couldn't stay the course. (Financial Times) [Online]
    A well-known UK coaching school holds an introductory workshop for people interested in becoming coaches. A journalist shows up to sample the event and in a some what humorous (sarcastic) way, points out the weaknesses: coaching is touted as being able to deal with anything; coaching is cliche-ridden; coaching is full of simplistic advice, "requires little training, little intelligence, and no experience;" coaches themselves are often in need of serious coaching; and "a great deal of coaching could be replaced with a bottle of wine, a curry and the company of a semi-sympathetic friend." Retrieved from (After July 7, 2004 available to paid subscribers only. For a well-stated "letter to the editor" response to this article, read what coach and ICF member Susan Franzen had to say.)


  • Arnott, J. and Sparrow, J. (2004). The coaching study 2004. London: Origin Consulting, Ltd.
    In conjunction with the University of Central England, the authors examined how coaching contributes value to businesses and organizations across the United Kingdom. The study included more than 100 well-known companies. Some of the findings include: (1) a number of companies do not use coaching because they lack the understanding of how to measure its return and value; (2) larger organizations were more likely to use coaching; (3) coaching is more established in the private rather than the public sector; (4) most of the coaching takes place at the executive level and concerns personal development and performance improvement; (5) referrals and prior awareness are the main sources for identifying coaches; (6) most coaching is provided by established firms and networks; (7) six criteria (personal style, cultural fit, good track record, coaching experience, professional standards) are essential in a decision to employ a coach; (8) three factors appeared to influence outcomes: evidence of professional development, coaching qualifications, and a structured approach; and (9) strong expectation that use will increase and clear evidence that systematic and structured use will provide greater value. The full report is available for a fee from either of the authors.

  • Ludeman, K. and Erlandson, E. (May, 2004). Coaching the Alpha male. Harvard Business Review, 82, 5, 58-67.
    The authors, who together have coached more than 1,000 executives, have identified a contemporary business paradox: some executives are so good at their jobs, they need coaches to help them keep their jobs. They particularly single out "alpha males," people who are only happy if they are at the top, calling the shots. The authors explain how coaches can assist executives with these traits by building on strengths and reducing weaknesses such as in the case of alpha males, supporting their results orientation, but at the same time helping them respond effectively to feedback. The authors identify a number of traps that can snare coaches when they work with alpha males. An alpha male, for example, doesn't have time for a "nice, touchy-feely" coach, so a coach who likes fluidity, spontaneity in coaching may be unable to gain credibility with this type of client. Another trap is a coach's excessive concern about confidentiality or privacy. Such secrecy plays into an alpha male weakness or not attending to how others perceive them and discussing openly any commitment to change. Most importantly coaches need to avoid the trap of being intimidated by the personality or genuine power of such alpha types. The authors identify several specific coaching techniques, including getting attention, demanding commitment, speaking the same language, challenging where it hurts, and engaging curiosity and competitive instincts. The also outline five steps that contribute to the growth of alphas including admitting vulnerability, accepting accountability, connecting with underlying emotions, balancing positive with critical feedback, and becoming aware of patterns. A tool is included to help alphas chart their progress toward more constructive thinking and balancing their need to be right. A brief description of the alpha female is included.

  • Jayne, V. (February 4, 2004). Executive development coaching pays. Management Magazine (New Zealand), 2, 47-52.
    The author believes that coaching and mentoring are not only important for executive development, but are essential for business success. She briefly traces the development of these two activities in New Zealand and provides anecdotal evidence as to their success at both the individual and organizational level, including how they instill core competencies, build leadership skills, and maintain development. Information is also provided about criteria used to select the "right" provider and how different providers may have strengths needed by companies in different phases of rolling out a coaching and mentoring approach. (Thanks to Jane John of On Point Research for identifying this article.)

  • Johnson, H. (May, 2004). The ins and outs of executive coaching. Training Magazine, 41, 5, 36-41.
    While coaching has become a major business strategy and knowledge of coaching has become more widespread, many firms are still left in a quandary about whether to outsource their coaching needs or turn to their own employees to provide such coaching. This article outlines the pros and cons of both external and internal coaching, providing a way for companies to improve the quality of their decision and increase the likelihood of obtaining top level coaches. The positive elements of external coaches include objectivity, lack of bias, wider circle of knowledge, and an exclusive focus on coaching relationship. On the negative side, finding an accredited, skilled external coaches can take considerable time and external coaches may need more time to get up to speed about the clients' company culture and situation. Internal coaches already know the company culture and environment (that could also be a negative feature) and clients may believe they are spending less of their budget by meeting with someone internal to the organization. On the negative side an internal coach often has to add coaching to existing job requirements, their knowledge is limited to their own company, and their training may not be equivalent to current standards, sometimes requiring more funding for keeping up the training focus. The article concludes that a combination of internal and external is most likely the best approach. (Thanks to Jane John of On Point Research for identifying this article.)

  • Pratt, L. (May 10, 2004). Ring up more sales with a telecoach: Sales managers lack the time to motivate staff. Financial Post, FE5.
    Week-long retreats are a thing of the past for the modern sales force. Telecoaching with its low cost, coach-from-anywhere, just-when-needed focus has become an essential tool allowing managers more time for management tasks. And some people believe that telecoaching can be more effective than in-person coaching (a greater sense of confidentiality, more likelihood of a coach challenging a client when non-verbal cues are less apparent, more opportunity for brief follow-up on action goals, and increased opportunities for recognition of a job well done). One company mentioned in the article showed a 21 percent increase over a one-year period as a result of telecoaching and another group had a 22 percent increase in sales after eight-months.

  • von Hoffman, C. (January, 1999). Coaching: The ten killer myths. Harvard Management Update,
    The author identifies ten myths associated with coaching, describes and dispels each, providing an action point. Amost every myth contains a kernel of truth. The ten he includes are: nobody can really define coaching, coaching is managing with a happy face, coaching is just another name for mentoring, being a coach means being a cheerleader, coaching takes a lot of time, coaching is a kind of psychotherapy, one recipe can handle all coaching situations, some people just can't be coached, if you successfully coach people, they may leave, and finally coaching doesn't add to the bottom line.

  • Laske, O. (2003). A developmental perspective on the ICF Core Competencies: Briefing for the ICF Board. Medford, MA: Laske and Associates.
    The briefing explains, by way of examples, what it means for the ICF to review their core competencies from a research point of view. The briefing also names some of the consequences of that view for training and certification, coaching practice, and coaching research. The author believes that if the ICF doesn't attend to adult development over the life span and its direct relevance to coaching, especially coach training, the ICF will have a troubled future. Download this paper. (PRN members only.)

  • Abbott, G. (2004). One Hundred Coaching Questions. Victoria, BC: Peer Resources.
    While coaching is more than just asking questions, certain questions have significant power to generate the type of help that most clients are seeking. In this list of 100 questions, organized around the phases of a coaching relationship, Geoff Abbott has provided coaches with samples of inquiry used by top coaches. Download this Word File.

  • Jones, L. B. (2004). Jesus, Life Coach: Learn from the Best. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson.
    The author has spent a lifetime studying the character of Jesus, and the better part of her career working with leaders. She believes "there is no better role model for coaching that gets lasting results than Jesus of Nazareth." For a more detailed review, go to Peer Resources Top Books on Coaching This book is available for purchase from or

  • McCuan, J. (February, 2004). The well-balanced life: Got Game?
    This article uses the term "life coach" to describe the work of a coach assisting an entrepreneur to grow a business and then balance work and personal priorities. The author describes a life coach as a "cross between a consultant and a therapist," and says that life coaches are paid between $400 and $1200 per month for three or four 45-minute sessions. The author briefly mentions the requirements for certification as a coach through the International Coach Federation (ICF) and assumes that all coaches have acquired this type of certification. Ironically only one of the two coaches mentioned in the article are members of the ICF.

  • Morgan, H., Harkins, P., and Goldsmith, M. (Eds.). (2003). Profiles in Coaching: The 2004 Handbook of Best Practices in Leadership Coaching. Burlington, MA:Linkage, Inc.
    The content of this book is the result of interviews with 50 thought leaders and well-known coaching practitioners who responded to questions such as "What is your philosophy of coaching?" "What is your approach?" "What capabilities make you successful?" and "What type of a client makes the coaching engagement work?" Analysis of their responses provides a state-of-the-art summary of where coaching is today, including how to select the right coach and maximize the impact of the coaching engagement; five distinct categories of business-oriented coaching currently used by senior leaders and top organizations; case studies of best practice organizations developing internal coaching or leader-as-coach capabilities; research on the ROI of coaching debate; and checklists, assessments, tips, and tools. For those that responded to the initial Linkage survey that preceded the book, the results from the survey are described and analyzed in Chapter 9 of this book. A list of 11 key findings from this book is provided on the book ordering page.

  • Grant, A. (November, 2003). Workplace, executive and life coaching: An annotated bibliography from the behavioural science literature. Sydney, Australia: Coaching Psychology Unit, University of Sydney.
    This paper summarizes 128 coaching or coaching related studies from two major abstracting sources. The first peer-reviewed paper on coaching was identified as appearing in 1937. The author concludes that the majority of work on coaching that has appeared in the professional literature are either uncontrolled group or case studies. This complete paper is available for download by Peer Resources Network members.

  • Delap, L. (November 22, 2003). When highfliers hit the wall it's 'messy.' Globe and Mail,, M5.
    The power of executive coaching is featured in this article which describes some innovative meditation and focusing techniques used by a Toronto-area coach. Among the opinions expressed in this article is the statement that the top coaches are "not necessarily affiliated with a professional association." However, one of the coaches mentioned as "most sought after" in the Toronto area is Peer Resources Network member Stephen Friedman. The author also states that companies pay out about $10,000 for six months of coaching. Most top coaches only take on a few clients, but client commitment is a must. demonstrate commitment. With executives, according to the coaches interviewed, spiritual techniques, including mindfulness and deep listening are exceptionally helpful in assisting executives who are hanging on by their fingernails move to a deeper examination of their needs.

  • Anonymous. (2003). Coaching helps Vodafone to change its culture. Human Resource Management International Digest, 11, 1, 31-33.
    This company went from a command and control culture to one based on coaching and collaboration. The author believes this move was the prime reason for the company's ascension to the top rung of its industry. The company instituted one-to-one coaching and coaching skills training and placed importance on creating a coaching culture from the top down. Coaching increased manager recognition of staff development as a key role to success.

  • Jay, M. (2003). Understanding how to leverage executive coaching. Organization Development Journal, 21, 2, 6+.
    This article details how to bring emotional intelligence into the workplace in order to amplify the power of coaching. However, to maximize the leverage of coaching, coaches must go beyond single loop (or problem-solving) approaches to learning and move to double loop (governing values or norms), to the triple loop (personal identity issues) through to the fourth learning loop (a higher level of self as witness). The author provides a list of potential questions a coach might ask at each of these learning junctures. Each loop increases the leverage of coaching and an integrated, developmental approach to executive coaching will have the most power.

  • Anonymous. (2003). Hitachi invests in personalised development to retain key staff. Journal of European Industrial Training, 27, 6/7, 382.
    In order to retain its most talented employees, Hitachi has introduced a series of workshops aimed at individual coaching for managers.

  • Landale, A. (2003). Leadership development programme boosts performance and profitability at Sage. Training and Management Development Methods, 17, 2, 705-710.
    As part of its focus on improving the balance-sheet for the accountancy firm, Sage, a consulting company is providing ongoing coaching support to ensure that learning is transferred to the workplace. Current management reports that the program has had a positive impact.

  • Smither, J.W., London, M., Flautt, R., Vargas, Y., and Kucine, I. (2003). Can working with an executive coach improve multisource feedback ratings over time? A quasi-experimental field study. Personnel Psychology, 56, 1, 23-44.
    Managers typically have a favorable impression of executive coaching, but too little attention has been directed towards the impact of such coaching on change and improvement. To correct that gap, these researchers studied 1,361 senior managers who received multisource feedback. Of this group 404 worked with an executive coach to review their feedback and set goals. A year later 1,202 senior managers received multisource feedback from another survey. Managers who worked with an executive coach were more likely than other managers to set specific goals, solicit ideas for improvement from their supervisors, and improved more than other managers in terms of direct report and supervisor ratings.

  • Bacon, T.R. (2003). Helping people change. Industrial and Commercial Training, 35, 2/3, 73-77.
    The author describes two approaches to coaching: the directive and non-directive, and asserts that most clients prefer the non-directive approach. In this approach the coach asks questions, listens, and engages the client as a colleague. He suggests that coaches need to ask questions that help clients become aware of the need for change, assist clients to have a sense of urgency, commit to willingness to make changes, examine what change will mean, and engage in specific actions to bring about the change. The coach must also be available to help reinforce change to increase its permanence.

  • Storey, M.A. (2003). Bringing head and heart to coaching. Organization Development Journal, 21, 2, 77.
    The author believes that coaching would have prevented many of the top-level executives from committing various crimes that decreased shareholder value and sent thousands of employees to the unemployment lines. Coaching from the head and heart would have helped these corporate wrong-doers do the right thing instead. The author describes coaching as "a transformational instrument, enabling permanent, desired, behavioral, managerial, and organizational change" that takes into account both cognitive (head) and values (heart).

  • Wasylyshyn, K.M. (2003). Executive coaching: An outcome study. Consulting Psychology Journal, 55, 2, 94-106.
    This study found that when executives choose a coach they are likely to be more concerned about a coach's graduate training in psychology and his or her experience in/understanding of business, and least concerned about an established reputation as a coach. Executives in the study believed that the top three personal characteristics of an effective executive coach were the ability to form a strong "connection" with the executive, professionalism, and the use of a clear and sound coaching methodology. The study also examined the pros and cons of both internal and external coaches. Executives were highly supportive of external coaches and cited trust and confidentiality as key factors; but some expressed concern about the likelihood that external coaches might lack industry experience and company knowledge. More than two-thirds of the executives also gave positive ratings to internal coaches, but cited concerns about potential conflicts of interest, trust and ability to maintain confidentiality, and skill level. Executives also differed in what they described as the key focus for their interaction with the coaches. Fifty-six percent of the executive group focused on personal behaviour change, forty-three percent identified enhancing leader effectiveness, forty percent focused on building stronger relationships, seventeen percent used the coach for personal development, and seven percent used their coaching sessions to work on better work-family integration. Executives were also asked about what they believed to be indicators of successful coaching engagements and the coaching tools they favored. Most executives favored the coaching sessions themselves, 360 degree feedback, and the relationship with the coach. About half liked other types of testing or leadership readings provided by the coach. The author believes these additional tools deepened the clients' perceived value of the coaching. The author, who is president of an organization that specializes in applications of psychology in business, also raises a question about which executives are most likely to benefit from this development resource and presents a typology for gauging this issue. She concludes by stating that "psychologists with doctoral degrees, experience in business and/or general management, personal characteristics that abet rapid and authentic connections with executives, and who are guided by a strong set of professional ethical principles are perceived by executives as especially effective coaches."

  • Moses, B. (November 12, 2003). Choose a coach with care. Globe and Mail, C3.
    A leading organizational career management consultant and regular career columnist for Canada's national newspaper examines the promises and problems associated with the delivery of coaching in both the business and personal realms. The article tracks the reasons for the growth of coaching, but also challenges the validity of claims made by coaches about what they can provide. Coaches may be exploiting people looking for a quick-fix or people who are insecure about their current status. In addition many practitioners might be using the term coach to get onboard the coaching ship and worst of all, lack of regulation allows virtually anyone to take on the role title. Another problem examined by the author is the potential that coaches do not have the background and training to identify problems that are over their heads. This could lead to a misunderstanding of the origin of the situation or circumstances faced by a client and instead only attend to the presenting issue. Some coaches may substitute "cheerleading" and "evangelical zeal" or use cliches such as "find your passion" or "search your core values" in place of in-depth understanding of the complicated life faced by the business executive in today's global society. The author also recognizes the positive contribution made by experienced and skilled coaches and quotes several of them in the article. A sidebar identifies key resources people can use to learn more about coaching.(RAC)

  • CompassPoint Nonprofit Services (2003). Executive coaching project: Evaluation of findings. San Francisco: CompassPoint Nonprofit Services. Retrieved from
    The results of a one-year study of coaching where 24 executive directors of non-profit organizations received 40 hours of one-on-one coaching. Each executive director was matched with one of twelve coaches prescreened by CompassPoint. Each executive director chose their coach after interviewing at least two coaches. Project coaches had all completed one or several training programs offered by five well-known coach training organizations. The executive directors also participated in three peer learning roundtables to enrich their coaching experience. Coaching was distinguished from consulting or training by three criteria: coach enquiry is directed towards clients creating their own solutions rather than coaches providing expertise, solutions and recommendations; a coach provides encouragement and accountability for an executive to act rather than the coach taking action for the executive or organization; coaching emphasizes leader self-awareness of strengths and talents to reshape the job to fit the leader rather than reshaping the leader to fit the job. The results of this study showed that coaching had a positive impact on participating executive directors and their organizations in the areas of leadership and management, organization, attitudes and beliefs, personal life, job satisfaction, and tenure and turnover. Executive directors reported improved relationship with staff, better alignment of vision, mission between board and themselves, improved effectiveness at balancing demands of personal/professional, increased confidence, reduced stress and burnout, and increased commitment to the non-profit sector.

  • Grant, A.M. (2003). Towards a psychology of coaching. University of Sydney: Coaching Psychology Unit. The use of an executive or life coach in order to enhance one's work performance or life experience is increasing in popularity. However, there is little empirical research attesting to the effectiveness of executive or life coaching, and there have been few attempts to outline a psychology of coaching. This paper reviews the empirical and theoretical psychological literature on executive and life coaching and, drawing on previous clinical and counselling psychology details a solution-focused, cognitive-behavioural framework for a psychology of coaching. The review finds that there is some measure of empirical support for the effectiveness of coaching, but coaching research is still in its infancy. A number of directions for future research are outlined which may further the establishment of the emerging discipline of coaching psychology. Peer Resources Network members may download the full paper.

  • Laske, O. (2003, November). An integrated model of developmental coaching: researching new ways of coaching and coach education. Paper and powerpoint presentation at the International Coach Federation Conference in Denver, Colorado.
    This comprehensive paper details the extensive and historical foundations for "adult developmental coaching" as practiced by Laske and Associates and based on the adult development research of the Kohlberg School at Harvard University. The author believes that performance oriented coaching is based on a limited understanding of human potential which ignores the fields of developmental psychology and education. In addition, the author argues, the outcomes of coaching strongly depend of a coach's own developmental level. The author reports on a research study conducted with executives and applies the results to coaching practice and coach training. Peer Resources Network members may download the full paper and Powerpoint slides.

  • Creane, V.E. (2003). An exploratory study of personal coaching from the client's perspective. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, California Institute of Integral Studies.
    This study describes the nature and impact of coaching from the perspective of personal coaching clients. In-depth interviews were conducted with eight adults who were currently engaged in long-term coaching relationships with experienced coaches certified by the Coaches Training Institute. Thirteen major themes were identified that address the nature and impact of personal coaching. Eight themes described the process of coaching: (a) identifies what clients want; (b) shifts clients' perspectives; (c) connects the client and coach in a powerful; relationship;(d) promotes self-discovery; (e) focuses on the present and future rather than the past; (f) promotes client accountability; (g) identifies and challenges clients' internal barriers to success; and (h) follows the client's agenda. Three themes addressed the skills a coach used during coaching: (a) listening; (b) asking thought-provoking questions, and; (c) providing validation or acknowledgment. Four themes described the impact of coaching on clients: (a) becoming more aware of what they want; (b) self-discovery; (c) moving forward in their lives, and; (d) feeling more positively about themselves.

  • Thier, M. (2003). Coaching C.L.U.E.S. Real Stories, Powerful Solutions, Practical Tools Minneapolis, MN: Nicholas Brealey.
    A Master Certified Coach presents her CLUES (Characteristics, Language, Underlying motives, Energy and Stories) model for observing and understanding clients' behaviours. This practical handbook includes case studies and a dozen skills and corresponding tools for using the five CLUES to improve performance as a coach. This book can be purchased through (for Canadian orders) or (for US or international orders).

  • Junghahn, H. (2003). Executive coaching: A study on the rise of a new form of executive development. Unpublished master's thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge.
    Executive clients and their coaches were interviewed on their perspectives of the rationale for having a coach and the impact of a coach on executive development. Interviewees were divided on the value of previous management experience as necessary for coach effectiveness; most believed that external coaches are more effective than internal; all agreed on the importance of setting an agenda, and engaging in assessment. The study also asked about how coaches learn about clients, measures of coaching effectiveness, how coaches see their work as aiding clients, and how coaching influences others.

  • Butterfield, P. (March 21, 2003). Executive coaching: Are you ready for its challenges? Columbus Business First Online Edition. Retrieved from - The author, who is a business coach, describes what prompted three of her clients to seek an executive coach. Each of them were experiencing a challenge to their career goals brought on by a corporate promotion. And the qualities that gained them advancement are often not the same skills needed to stay and prosper in the new job. The author describes how coaches (as compared to consultants) may be the best choice for executives because of the tools and skills a coach brings to the table. One client may need more accurate feedback; another may need increased people management skill, or greater confidence and self-understanding. The author believes that the best time for a business person to contact a coach is when the person is ready to grow and learn. And many circumstances in a business setting can act as a catalyst for this learning including getting a promotion (or being passed over for a promotion); taking on new project; increased responsibility for managing diverse work group; or even dealing with challenging life events that have a natural impact on work and career.

  • Thorpe, S. and Clifford, J. (February, 2003). The Coaching handbook: An action kit for trainers and managers. London: Kogan Page Limited.
    In part 1 of this book the authors, both experienced as training managers, detail a six-stage coaching model which they believe can be used by peers to coach each other. Part 2 of the book provides many short case studies along with activities and practical exercises that can be used in coaching.

  • Anonymous. (2003). When executive coaching fails to deliver is it time to kick sporting metaphors into touch? Development and Learning in Organizations, 17, 2, 17-20.
    Citing unattributed sources this article states that coaches typically make between $1500 and $15,000 per day and that the 10,000 coaches currently practicing today will swell to 50,000 by 2007. The author cites a Hays Group study (also unattributed) of 170 HR professionals that revealed at least 50 percent had created a coaching program in the past year and a half and more than 70 percent thought coaching was more effective than training in both changing behavior and improving performance. The author lists a number of downsides about coaching including ambiguous qualifications and the influx of sports coaches into the business coaching world. While sports coaching might work in the world of sports, it has yet to show any results of value, according to the author, in the business world. The author includes four additional pitfalls: (1) too much focus on behaviorism; (2) balancing coaching with psychotherapy effectively; (3) confusion over who the client is; and (4) beware of dependency relationships. The author concludes with a warning to stay away from executive coaching as a quick fix.

  • Mader, R. (January 3, 2003). Demand increases for coaches to guide executives, small firms. The Business Journal of Milwaukee. (Available online.) - Several experts are quoted as saying the coaching business is booming and the author interviews business people benefiting from using a coach. Coaching is described as facilitative guidance and not a quick fix. One expert estimates that while coaches generally don't charge by the hour, it is possible that the average hourly rate is between $250 and $500.

  • English, G. (January 3, 2003). Coaching is good, but what kind of coach? The Memphis Business Journal. (Available online.) - The author notes that using a sports coach analogy does not always work for the business coaching world. He recalls a well-known sports coach who typically blamed his players (for not winning) and contrasts this coach with another well-known sports coach who always advised his players to do their best. If managers choose the wrong model, they may think they are coaching, but instead they are hurting their team's work performance.

  • Anonymous. (2003). Creating destiny: Six coaching experts reveal the future. Compass: A Magazine for Peer Assistance, Mentorship and Coaching, 16, 1, 12-13. Judy Feld, Robert Hargrove, C.J. Hayden, Wendy Johnson, Julio Olalla, and Patrick Williams describe the factors associated with increased attention to coaching, challenges facing coaches today and in the future, and provide recommendations for maximizing coaching professionalism.

  • Perina, K. (Nov/Dec 2002). Coaching the coaches. Psychology Today, Retrieved online from
    The author argues that coaches are ill-prepared to deal with deep-seated psychological problems. She quotes two psychologists and perpetuates the myth held by psychologists about coaches that they will confuse symptoms with problems, lack knowledge of interpersonal relations, know little about developmental psychology, and are deficient in business skills. Psychologists, the author asserts, are more prepared because they can administer complicated personality tests and diagnose deeper problems. The International Coach Federation is either completely misquoted in the article with regards to the qualifications of most coaches or is misinformed when they say that the largest number of coaches are "sports psychologists, athletic trainers, academics, lawyers and self-help gurus." In addition the ICF is quoted as saying that 40 percent of the 10,000 coaches in America have training in clinical psychology.

  • Orenstein, R.L. (2002). Executive coaching: It's not just about the executive. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 38, 3, 355-74. (Not available for annotation.)

  • Gale, J., Liljenstrand, A., Pardieu, J., and Nebeker, D. (2002). Coaching survey: An in-depth analysis of coaching practices: From background information to outcome evaluation. Unpublished manuscript, California School of Organizational Studies at Alliant International University. - The results of a web-based survey of members of a variety of professional coach organizations including the ICF, PCMA, TECF, and independent coaches was conducted as a way of adding more sophisticated and valid scientific data to what is known about the coaching profession. The rationale and a brief, limited review of past coaching literature, the methods of the study, and the results regarding areas such as client acquisition, contracting, coaching practices, outcome evaluation, philosophical issues, and demographics are discussed. Appendices provide raw data. Download

  • Wozniak, L. (2002). Coaching the chief executive: Interview with D. Stratford. Far Eastern Economic Review, 165, 19, 56. (Not available for annotation).

  • Zaslow, J. (November 5, 2002). Personal life coaches need some help, too, so they get together. Wall Street Journal, 1+. A journalist's view of the 2002 3-day annual conference of the International Coach Federation held in Atlanta in October. While a number of points are made (of the 875 people attending the conference about 55 percent were novice coaches, ICF membership is now 5500 yet only 18 percent of ICF members have the hours to be certified by ICF, about 25,000 coaches are practicing in the US, and that being coached is an important part of being a coach), the descriptions of the various sessions and activities seem almost trivial, trendy, psychobabble-oriented and of dubious value. An exhibitor is quoted as saying that coaches avoided his booth featuring tools to assess employee strengths and instead preferred "dance circles where you feel each other's aura."

  • Conlin, M. (November 11, 2002). CEO coaches. Business Week Magazine (Article available online to subscribers only). This article details the interaction between coaches and a number of their clients who are executives of well-known corporations. Virtually all the executives are named and each one describes how his/her coach helped the executive with feedback, changing leadership style, improving company culture, and dealing with ethical dilemmas. The article outlines the variety of techniques used by coaches to help executives make these changes and coaches are referred to as the "high priests of corporate survival." Distinction made between what a coach can do and what a management consultant might typically provide and the author acknowledges that some of what a coach does might border on psychotherapy, particularly when a coach is helping an executive turn inward as a way of dealing with difficult or tough areas.

  • Barone, V. and Childress, K. (Editors) (2002). The solo professional: Navigating the business side of your business.
    The editors of this e-book have put together an array of expertise that can assist anyone, not just coaches, in getting their business on the right track. Each of 39 experts succinctly describe the challenges awaiting the solo professional, share their experiences or wrong turns and provide specific ideas, leads and useful resources. Every topic is included from developing your vision, to pricing your services, to marketing, to accounting, to deciding on legal structures, to planning for retirement, to building a support system, to establishing an office practice and more. The editors (who are also authors of some of the articles) have assembled a prestigious team of contributors and have even created a chapter that focuses on "if I knew then what I know now" where the experts list both their best business decision as well as the decision that caused them the most grief. This book is available for purchase as an e-book for $24.95 from The Solo Professional.

  • Rivera, P.V. (July 16, 2002). Personal coaching isn't helpful to all executives: The profession is on the rise, but analysts say there are risks. Dallas Morning News, 2D. - While this article emphasizes the growth of coaching and how business coaches can help leaders to identify strengths, enhance communication, build self-esteem and resolve conflicts, the article perpetuates the misinformation associated with the myths created by psychologist, Stephen Berglas, that coaches are likely to give quick fixes and get in over their heads.

  • Goldgrab, S. (May, 2002). Coaching your stars to be leaders. CMA Management, 76, 3, 30-32. - The author believes that even highly talented individuals can benefit from coaching, particularly expanding a person's ability to be an exceptional leader. Often a star can be held back by an out of date management system. By understanding the organization's leadership model and the client's goals and objectives and then using a variety of assessment tools to identify any gaps, a coach can help clients resolve whatever gaps might exist.

  • Martinez, A.D. (May 2, 2002). Mental health trends: Coaching: Is this considered the practice of psychotherapy? [Online]. In this article the program administrator for the State of Colorado Mental Health Licensing Section outlines the regulations regarding psychotherapy and points out how coaching, particularly personal coaching (as compared to business coaching) may cross over into already regulated territory. The author has a good understanding of coaching and outlines potential problem areas. He concludes with the advice: "Persons who are considering personal coaching as a career, or an addition to an already established career, are advised to seek counsel from an attorney with experience in mental health practice issues or consultation from a trained mental health professional."

  • Peterson, K.S. (August 6, 2002). Life-coaches all the rage. USA Today (Online). - The author provides a brief article on the increase in the use of coaching quoting coaching experts such as Patrick Williams and Laura Berman Fortgang on the reasons for such an increase. The article also includes statements from psychotherapists about how coaching differs from their discipline area.

  • Brooks, B. (2002). Are you a practical dreamer? If not, you should be! (Reproduced with permission by Peer Resources from MentorU.) - This article shows the relationship between dreams and achieving your goals. Useful for both coaches and clients as a way to provide inspiration and recognize what it takes to make your dreams come true. (PDF) Download

  • Life Coaching [On-Line Audio Program] Available: National Public Radio - This program was delivered as part of the Talk of the Nation (on NPR), Thursday, March 7, 2002. The program features Patrick Williams (Life Coach Institute) who responds to call-in questions and additional guests responding by telephone who are coaches or have particular reservations or criticisms of coaching or the coaching "movement." One nationally acclaimed author describes coaching as a "way of marketing self-help on the retail level" while another guest chides coaching for having such a meagre empirical (published research) basis. Patrick Williams responds to their questions, cynical viewpoints and challenges.

  • Jay, M. (2002). The business case for coaching. [On-Line]. Available: - The founder and CEO of one of the top business coach training programs outlines the key reasons for using coaches in a business setting and how coaching contributes to organization development and growth. The author provides evidence demonstrating the growth of coaching in industry and the connection between coaching and other paradigms such as emotional intelligence, brain research, managing change and transfer of training. Included in the article is a definition of coaching which succinctly describes the coach role and the nature of the coaching relationship. The author outlines the core competencies of coaching (connection, clarification and commitment) and five key abilities (listening, observing, discerning, modeling and delivering). In addition the author provides further details with examples of how twenty-two principles of emotional intelligence can be concretely demonstrated through coaching interactions. Note: this paper is part of Coaching as a Transformational Leadership Competency: Executive Series.

  • Fisher, A. (May 13, 2002). Annie weighs in on executive coaching and untruths on resumes. Fortune Magazine {Online}. - In reaction to an article about coaching written previously by the author, executives from a major financial services company provide information that shows that when their company put part of its retail sales force through an intensive coaching program, they found that productivity among those salespeople increased by an average of 35%, while 78% of the sales reps embarked on the pursuit of a new license or professional designation, and 50 percent identified new markets to develop. The company retained all of the salespeople who had the coaching and industry statistics show that each rep who leaves a company with three years' experience costs $140,000 to replace. The coaching initiative which cost about $620,000, delivered $3.2 million in measurable gains.

  • Jay, M. (2002). Responsibility, accountability and authority in coaching. [On-Line]. Available: - The author, an experienced business coach and trainer, describes the conditions that he believes provide a coach maximum leverage to achieve the purpose of coaching, namely that coaching works best when the coach has no responsibility, accountability or authority over the person being coached. The article provides examples of how this leverage works in practice and what can happen when a coach strays from this perspective. Note: this paper is part of Coaching as a Transformational Leadership Competency: Executive Series.

  • Woodland, K. (January, 2002). Coaching: The Business of Life and Success. Focus on Women Magazine, 14, 4, 40-45. - The expansion of coaching as a career is documented and coaches detail what coaching is and what it is not. Two Victoria, BC area coaches, Sally Glover and Kerry Brown, are profiled and they provide tips on how to make life progress. Rey Carr, President of Peer Resources is also quoted and a list of resources for learning more about coaching is provided.

  • Oriente, Ernest, J. (2002). Living in Your Niche. - A professional business coach who has spent more than 11,000 hours coaching clients around the world on reaching their dreams and goals shares his proven ideas on how to find and develop your niche in any endeavor (not just as a coach). This article provides specific, concrete ideas essential for practice building and the article itself is a demonstration of a way to build a professional practice. Download Article (Requires Adobe Acrobat Reader which is can be obtained free from Adobe.

  • Diedrich, R.C. and Kilburg, R.R. (Fall, 2001). Foreward: Further consideration of executive coaching as an emerging competency. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 53, 4, 203-204.
    This introduction to the special issue of this journal builds on the work of a 1996 special issue also devoted to executive coaching. The author mentions that the previous issue was the biggest selling issue ever of this professional periodical and speculates that it illustrates the considerable interest in coaching as many counseling, psychotherapy and psychological practitioners turn towards coaching. The authors contend that when businesses hire a consulting psychologist, he or she is automatically involved in executive coaching because of the setting, the task, the interpersonal requirements, and such that surround the executive. The authors also believe that coaching executives requires a special skill set founded on knowledge about organizations, management, leadership, economics and other disciplines. They describe executive coaching as a subset of consulting psychology.

  • Vale, S. (December, 2001). Business coaching: The road to personal satisfaction. Workplace News, 7, 12, 6. - Corporate coach Sandy Vale describes why more people are seeking the assistance of a coach for corporate or business purposes and the benefits that come from such a relationship. She identifies four key benefits: (1) saving the cost of firing and hiring a new employee; (2) bringing new employees up to speed; (3) preventing turnover of star quality employees; and (4) providing managers with a skill that can empower employees. Coaching also helps individual employees increase their awareness of what satisfies them at work, how to get more of it and how to gain more meaning in their lives.

  • McGovern, J., Lindemann, M., Vergara, M.A., Murphy, S, Barker, M.A. and Warrenfeltz, R. (2001). Maximizing the impact of executive coaching: Behavioral change, organizational outcomes, and return on investment. - A study conducted by one of the global leaders in coaching, the Manchester Group, of their delivery of coaching by their certified coaches. The study demonstrated a return on investment as a result of coaching that was 6 times higher than what was initially predicted and was assessed as a $25 million dollar benefit. The formula for ROI is included as well as details about the procedures used and outcomes obtained. (Complete study available to PRN members as PDF file.)

  • Freas, A. (2001). Strategic executive coaching: A success story. (Retrieved August 15, 2006 from Executive Coaching Network)- This article written by the President and CEO of Executive Coaching Network, Inc. describes the phases of successful executive coaching, including establishing a cooperative relationship, providing individual coaching and assessing the impact. The author also details how coaching helped a CEO and why the coaching was successful.

  • Carr, R. (March, 2001). A review of the audio tape series New Directions for Therapists: Building a Successful Coaching Business. Victoria, BC: Peer Resources NetPapers. - This six audio tape series includes interview with 14 therapists who have made or are in the process of making a transition to coaching.

  • Diedrich, R. C. (2001). Lessons learned in-and guidelines for-coaching executive teams. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 53, 238-239. (Not available for annotation.)

  • Frisch, M. H. (2001). The emerging role of the internal coach. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 53, 240-250.
    The author details the increasing use of the internal coach, defines the role and identifies key issues.

  • Hart, V. , Blattner, J. and Leipsic, S. (2001). Coaching versus therapy: A perspective. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 53, 229-237.
    The authors provide a perspective on the perceptions among 30 professionals regarding the distinctions between and overlaps in therapy and coaching, based on seven questions they used to gather interview data and narrative summaries. The questions they used included: (1) From your experience, what do you think Is the critical difference between coaching and therapy? (2) How do you relate to coaching clients versus therapy clients? (3) What would you do or not do with a coaching client versus a therapy client? (4) What do you consider "Red Flags" for coaches who are not trained therapists? (5) What do you think is unique about coaching that a trained therapist-turned-coach needs to be aware of while coaching? (6) who would you say is in control in coaching and in therapy? and (7) How are contracting and confidentiality handled in coaching versus therapy? The authors conclude that there are several distinct differences (focus of attention, time orientation, and types of conversations) and also several areas of overlap (methods of inquiry, boundary issues, tendency to give advice). Coaching was described as more goal directed and action oriented. Coaches without professional training may fail to recognize warning signs of deeper problems. But clinicians without business experience may have less knowledge of what it takes to achieve results. The authors also identify issues fo future consideration including: concerns about legality and accountability, the importance of adequate training, and the need for supervision (a coach should have a coach).

  • Kampa-Kokesch, S. & Anderson, M. Z. (2001). Executive coaching: A comprehensive review of the literature. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 53, 205-226.
    A comprehensive and critical review of the evolving literature of executive coaching. The authors provide (1) a brief history of executive coaching; (2) a summary of the main themes discussed in the practice-based literature (definitions and standards, purpose, techniques and methodologies used, comparison with counseling and therapy, credentials of coaches, finding coaches, and recipients of services); (3) a review of the existing empirical research; and (4) address the questions of whether executive coaching increases individual and organizational performance or whether it is a fad. This article provides the best and most up-to-date summary of the status of executive coaching and issues associated with the practice or delivery of services and offers a number of suggestions for future directions.

  • Kilburg, R. R. (2001). Facilitating intervention adherence in executive coaching: A model and methods. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 53, 251-267.
    The author, a professor at Johns Hopkins University, focuses on the absence of a literature regarding the impact of executive coaching. He presents an eight-element model that attends to potential outcomes and suggests a method for assessing the degree to which practitioners have achieved the outcome elements.

  • Russo, F. (September 25, 2000). Fostering employee loyalty in a tight labor market, companies are offering workers personal coaches as a tool to help them thrive., 156, 13.- The online version of Time Magazine provides an article describing how coaching can help executives and how Corporate Coach U is providing the expert coaches for such work.

  • Pitts, G. (September 20, 2000). Coaches assist with game plan. Globe and Mail, M1. - This lead article in the Managing plus Careers section describes how coaching has become a preferred way to bring about life-changing and company-changing decisions. The kinds of concerns that lead executives to seek a coach are described (career advancement, managing fears, demoralization, improved decision making, gaining perspective, understanding alternatives, balancing lifestyle) and some details about what coaches charge for such services are mentioned. Concerns about lack of qualifications are also mentioned, but the author seems to think that anyone who was(is) a sports coach can be called a coach.

  • McCafferty, Megan (May/June 2000). Personal training for the soul. New Age Magazine, 40+. - The former editor of a well-known woman's magazine describes how coaching helped her make the transition from a job that had lost its challenge and meaning to a new role as an independent journalist. The author worked with coach Cheryl Richardson and describes the content of the several sessions (and homework assignments) that helped her focus on how to put what she learned into practice. While the author believes she might have eventually achieved her goals on her own, she acknowledges how much quicker she was able to discover her direction with the aid of a coach. (This magazine is no longer being published.)

  • Hamilton, B. (May 8, 2000). Executive coaching - HR should play ball. Supplement to Canadian HR Reporter, 13, 9, G1+. - After briefly describing the reasons for the rapid development of executive coaching and the roles of the coach (primarily to help the client take responsibility for change), the author states that coaching requires three key elements: defining expecations with client, monitoring progress, and giving feedback. Hamilton believes the key to coaching is not applying a set of principles but following the client through his or her own reality. He gives advice to HR departments on how to support successful coaching initiatives. First, let people choose their own coaches; second, consider fees for coaching just like any other training endeavor; third, integrate coaching into the culture; fourth, don't involve the HR department as coaches; and fifth, select coaches that have a holistic commitment, not a rigid protocol.(RAC)

  • Garman, A.N., Whiston, D.L., and Zlatoper, K.W. (Summer, 2000). Media perceptions of executive coaching and the formal preparation of coaches. Consulting Psychology Journal, 52, 3, 201-205.
    The authors reviewed seventy-two articles on executive coaching that appeared in management publications between 1991 and 1998 to determine the general opinions of the practice of executive coaching and the extent to which training in psychology was described as relevant and useful to coaching practice. Results suggest that favorable views of executive coaching far exceed unfavorable views. However, psychologists were seldom recognized as uniquely competent practitioners and the use of psychological methods such as 360-degree assessment was sometimes viewed as merely an attempt to generate revenue. Implications of these findings for psychologists in coaching roles are discussed.

  • Anonymous. (October, 1999) Corporate coaching growing as retention tool. HR Focus, 76, 4. - Coaching, once thought of strictly as a corporate development tool, is now one of the strongest retention tools in a manager's arsenal. In a survey of 900 human resources executives conducted by CareerTeam Partners, 71% of firms polled said they provide coaching to their employees. Of this group, 44% provide it as part of an ongoing interaction between employee and manager. Another 36% use internal human resources staffs to implement the programs, whereas 20% use outside consultants. In implementing formalized programs, 63% of organizations cite typical coaching sessions as lasting between one to 10 sessions, whereas 37% favor open-ended program lengths. Open-ended arrangements may work well in some corporate cultures, but may delay changes in behavior. Survey participants confirmed that interpersonal skills continue to be the central domain of coaching. Skills sought through coaching in rank order were: 1) managing people; 2) leadership; 3) interpersonal communication; and 4) team building.

  • Martin, Debrah J. (October, 1999). Coaching: A must have skill for leaders. Workplace Today: The Canadian Journal of Workplace Issues, Plans and Strategies, 36-37. - Emphasizes the importance of coaching in today's workplace and provides seven tips for initiating a coaching service, including (1) put your own stuff to the side; (2) ask more questions and make fewer declarations; (3) really listen to the people you work with; (4) create action plans with your employees; (5) learn to celebrate success; (6) build on peoples' strengths; and (7) sustain the momentum.

  • Giglio, L., Diamante, T., and Urban, J.M. (1998). Coaching a leader: Leveraging change at the top. Journal of Management Development, 17, 2, 93-105.
    The authors argue that coaching executives should be an on-going process and not just an intervention when an executive's resiliency flags or is deficient. The primary task for an executive coach is to gather data from the executive and those that surround the executive in order to create a better understanding of reality. Coaching is a critical part of the organizational development process and executive resiliency is an an outcome of effective coaching. The authors identify a three-phase, seven step process.and provide details regarding each step and describe the goals, approaches and problems associated with each.

  • Brotman, L. E., Liberi, W. P. and Wasylyshyn, K. M. (1998). Executive coaching: The need for standards of competence. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 50, 40-46.
    The authors, executive coaches with Fortune 100 experience, argue that psychologists working in executive coaching must promote a more complete understanding of what constitutes effectiveness in this arena. Experienced psychologists must accept accountability for the need to inform and educate corporate decision makers about the core skills, competencies, experience, and related professional issues critical for successful outcomes. The authors describe the core skills as approachability, comfort around top management, compassion, creativity, customer focus, integrity and trust, intellectual horsepower, interpersonal savvy, dealing with paradox, political savvy, and self-knowledge.

  • Tobin, Daniel R. (1998). The fallacy of ROI calculations. [On-Line]. - Dr. Tobin, one of the leading authorities on learning strategies in corporations points out the problems with calculations of ROI including whether ROI can ever really calculate powerful intangible factors, whether it actually includes the real reasons change occurred, and other problems. What makes this article unique is that Dr. Tobin has considerable experience in providing ROI calculations and formulas to corporations. In addition he specifies an alternative, which he calls the Learning Contract, that may have more power to detail change than ROI.

  • Williams, R. (May 17, 1998). Motivated to help others: Nicole Schapiro teaches people how to get what they want. Marin Independent Journal, D1+. A profile of Sausalito-based coach, Nicole Schapiro, the author of the New York Times' best seller, Negotiating for Your Life. Clients describe the value of meeting with her as a coach, friend, and motivator, and details are provided about the kind of life experiences that have brought Schapiro to her coaching work. A typical initial consultation costs $175.00 per hour.

  • Olivero, G., Bane, K.D., and Kopelman, R.E. (Winter, 1997). Executive coaching as a transfer of training tool: Effects on productivity in a public agency. Public Personnel Management, 26, 4, 461-469.
    The authors studied the impact of executive coaching on 31 managers in a US city health agency. In phase one of this project all managers participated in a three-day, classroom style training workshop that included a variety of interactive activities and focused on their work roles. The participants rated the training workshop very highly on all quantitative and qualitative measures. In phase two, the managers participated in an eight-week one-on-one coaching that detailed coaching processes tailored to the agency context. The post-training coaching included goal setting, collaborative problem solving, practice, feedback, supervisory involvement, evaluation of end-results, and a public presentation. The managers met with their coaches for one-hour each week over a two-month period. The authors found that while their training intervention with managers increased manager productivity by 22 percent, adding a one-to-one (8-week) coaching intervention after the training pushed productivity to 88 percent.


  • Larocque, T. (January, 1997). Personal coaching. Shared Vision Magazine, 101, 16-17. A personal coach describes how she offers one-on-one coaching and provides ten tips on how to achieve the results her clients want.

  • Anonymous. (November, 1996). What's new in the eternal search? A "personal success" coach. B.C. Business Magazine, 24, 11, 14. (Article not available for annotation.)

  • Anonymous. (February 5, 1996). Need a life? Get a coach. They're part therapist, part consultant and they sure know how to succeed in business. Newsweek, 127, 6, 48. (Article not available for annotation.)

  • Gilley, J.W. and Boughton, N.W. (1996). Stop managing, start coaching. New York: McGraw Hill. The authors of this book recommend that managers ought to be operating as performance coaches. They provide explicit details on how the performance coach engages in mentoring, career coaching, confrontation, and training. 224 pages.

  • Lowe, P. (1996). McGraw-Hill One-Day Workshop: Coaching and Counseling Skills.McGraw-Hill. This $110.00 book includes a variety of activities, handouts, training tips, and other components necessary to conduct a comprehensive workshop on coaching and counseling.

  • Hube, K. (December, 1996). A coach may be the guardian angel you need to rev up your career. Money Magazine, 43+. Provides examples of how coaching assists people to achieve their career goals.

  • Hutchinson, N.L., Freeman, J.G., & Quick, V.E. (1996). Group counseling intervention for solving problems on the job. Journal of Employment Counseling, 33, 1, 2-19. A group counseling intervention on the social problem solving by and employment preparation of Grade 9 and Grade 10 students was successful as a result of coaching the teachers involved.

  • Kinlaw, D. (1996). Coaching: The ASTD Trainer's Sourcebook. McGraw-Hill. Contents: introduction to coaching, program outlines for full-day, half-day, one-hour trainings; implementation guidelines, participant handouts, games and activities, assessment instruments and questionnaires, and overhead masters.

  • Koopman, A., & Johnson, L. (March, 1996). The quest for the corporate soul (Review). Quill & Quire, 62, 3, 68. A review of the book by Lance Secretan, a corporate coach. The power of this book is that Secretan seems truly to believe what he says and he offers it with grace and humility. Begin with yourself, he counsels. Recognize that you are a soul who needs care and feeding and that your working environment can be either therapeutic or toxic.

  • Peters, H. (March, 1996). Peer coaching for executives. Training and Development, 50, 3, 39-41. (Article not available for annotation.)

  • Zemke, R. (December, 1996). The corporate coach: Is coaching just the last label for the same old people managment skills? And if so, so what? Training, 33, 12, 24-28. Distills the common elements of successful coaches and claims that managers are typically weak in coaching skills.

  • Rigoglioso, M. (November/December, 1996). Living your dreams. New Age Journal, 76-81+. The author describes coaching as hiring a personal trainer for your soul, presents a number of real coaching examples, and lists resources to gain access to coaches and coach training.

  • Showers, B., & Joyce, B. (1996). The evolution of peer coaching. Educational Leadership, 53(6) 12-16. Peer coaching helps teachers implement new strategies.

  • Anonymous. (June, 1995). Highland Valley triumphs employee empowerment. Canadian Mining Journal, 116, 6-15. - Describes how coaching reduced costs and improved worker productivity.

  • Gathright, A. (April 19, 1995). Selecting a personal coach. San Jose Mercury News. An article about the San Francisco-based International Association of Personal and Professional Coaches.

  • Veenman, S. (1995). The training of coaching skills: An implementation study. Educational Studies, 21, 3, 415-431. Training of coaching skills with Dutch school counsellors are described. Coaching is a form of in class support intended to provide teachers with feedback on their own functioning and thereby stimulate self reflection and self analysis in order to improve instructional effectiveness. Based on the pre and post training ratings of coaching conferences, a significant treatment effect was found for the coaching skills concerned with the development of autonomy (empowerment), feedback, and purposefulness.

  • Schula, D., and Blanchard, K. (1995). Everyone’s a coach. Grand Rapids, MI: Harper Business.

  • Gottesman, B.L. and Jennings, J.O. (1994). Peer coaching for educators. Lancaster, PA: Technomic Press. Includes chapters on peer coaching in reform and restructuring; the rationale, process, and phases of peer coaching; how to manage peer coaching interactions; things to do and not do; troubleshooting and preventing problems.

  • Gingiss, P.L. (1993). Peer coaching: Building collegial support for using innovative health programs. Journal of School Health, 63, 2, 79-85. Reviews peer coaching program features, strategies, and theory foundations in helping teachers deliver various innovative health programs.

  • Miller, J.B. (1993). The corporate coach: How to build a team of loyal customers and happy employees New York, NY: Harper Business.

  • Sperry, L. (1993). Working with executives - consulting, counseling, and coaching. Individual Psychology - The Journal of Adlerian Theory Research and Practice, 49, 2, 257-266. (Not available for annotation.)

  • Stamps, D. (December, 1996). Hey, coach: Stuff it! Training, 33, 12, 30-33. Describes brieŖy the evolution of coaching from the world of sports into the world of the corporate workplace.

  • Hall, L. and McKeen, R.L. (1991). Peer coaching as an organization development intervention in the public schools. Education, 111, 4, 553-556. This article describes how peer tutoring and peer counselling can contribute to relationships between personal and job resources.

  • Mills, S. (1990). Practical Guide to Peer Coaching. Saskatoon, SK: Mills Consulting. Based on the author's personal experience and surveys submitted from 70 educators from across Saskatchewan, this guide for educators interested in peer coaching is designed to be concise and easy to use, and provides suggestions for implementation, with difficulties and solutions pointed out. Included in its contents are the driving and resisting forces for the implementation of peer coaching; the issues of choosing a partner, trust, supporting roles and skill development; and preparing staff and oneself for peer coaching. The guide includes worksheets and lists of resources.

  • Strother, D. B. (1989). Peer coaching for teachers: Opening classroom doors. Phi Delta Kappan, 70(10), 824-827. Surveys peer coaching literature and tackles areas such as (a) differentiating peer coaching from peer evaluation, peer assessment and peer review; (b) noting outcomes of studies of peer coaching effectiveness; (c) outlining the conditions required for coaching and the skills needed; and (d) highlighting some of the coaching programs in place. The article concludes with the effect of peer coaching on school culture.

  • Kinlaw, D. (1989). Coaching for Commitment Trainer's Package. San Diego: Pfeiffer and Co. Includes a copy of the best-selling Coaching for Commitment, a Trainer's Guide, Participant Workbooks 1 and 2, a videocassette, the Coaching Skills Inventory, the Problem-Solving Skills Questionnaire, and a bonus supplement. ($445.00 Cdn). A new and updated version is scheduled for publication in late 1998.

  • Anastos, J., & Ancowitz, R. (1987). A teacher-directed peer coaching project. Educational Leadership, 45(3), 40-42. - Teachers at a Larchmont, New York school have developed an approach to self- analysis through videotaped observations. All participants said the program met their needs for professional growth, and interview data suggest that the program can alleviate some of the isolation that plagues teachers.

  • Gibble, J. L., & Lawrence, J. D. (1987). Peer coaching for principals. Educational Leadership, 45(3), 72-73. Principals in a Pennsylvania district are voluntarily observing one another in order to improve their supervisory skills. Two principals jointly observe a teacher, compare their notes, label the data, conduct the teacher post-conference, and then hold the principal post-conference.

  • Sparks, G. M., & Bruder, S. (1987). Before and after peer coaching. Educational Leadership, 45(3), 54-57. Outcomes of peer coaching in two Ann Arbor, Michigan schools show that the 41 teachers became comfortable with the process and found it useful in improving collegiality, experimentation, and student learning.

  • Atkinson, C., & others (1980). Management development roles: Coach, sponsor, and mentor. Personnel Journal, 59(11), 918-921. - In a dynamic management development program, effective managers can be trained by other employees enacting the roles of coaches, sponsors, and mentors. By encouraging these relationships, the organization can produce better managers in a less random way.

  • Fournier, F. F. (1978). Coaching for improved work performance. Blue Ridge Summit: PA, Liberty House.

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